第五十七輯.第一期 - 2011-03-31

德國中小學學生法律地位之萌芽期

The Initial Period of German Students' Legal Status in Middle and Elementary Schools

作 者:
張源泉 / Yuan-Chuan Chang
關鍵字:
德國教育、公共教育、特別權力關係 / German education、public education、the special power relationship
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
歷史上,臺灣的教育法體系主要繼受於德國法,為釐清其歷史根源,本文探討德國中小學學生法律地位之萌芽期,先由歷史發展的角度,闡釋德國公共教育之濫觴;而後再進一步說明公共教育興起後,學生法律地位之相關理論,此包含國家概念與法律保留原則等;最後探討學生法律地位之內涵。 德國教育體制的建立,源自教會之學習機構;至十八世紀末,普魯士在啟蒙運動與開明專制的背景下,建立了義務教育制度,以此促使學者展開對於學生法律地位之研究。傳統的德國在學關係是一種「營造物關係」;營造物被視為國家的一部分,其使用與管理均屬於國家內部事宜,無須受到法律規範;行政機關有權制定特殊的內部規則,亦無須符合法律保留原則。學生處於營造物關係之特別權力關係中,必須受到校規的特別管束,從而喪失其獨立的公民主體身分。"
Taiwan inherited a system of educational law from Germany long ago. This study aims to discuss the initial period of German students’ legal status in middle and elementary schools. Firstly, this study analyzes the sources of German public education from a historic viewpoint. Then, it explains related theories of students’ legal status, including the concept of state and the principle of legal retention. Finally, the culture of German laws regarding students’ legal status is explored. The establishment of German educational system derived from churches. Due to the background of Enlightenment and enlightened absolutism, Prussia established the system of mandatory education in the late 18th century and stimulated research on students’ legal status. The traditional relationship in German schools was a kind of institutional relationship. Institutes were regarded as a part of the country. Their usage and management belonged to the internal affairs of the country without restriction of the law. Administrative organizations had power to set up particular internal regulations, unrestricted by the principle of legal retention. In such a special power relationship, Students had to be restrained by school regulations. Moreover, they lost their independent status as citizens.

APA 格式
張源泉(Yuan-Chuan Chang)(2011年03月31日),〈德國中小學學生法律地位之萌芽期〉。《教育研究集刊》,2014年01月26日取自:http://bulletin.ed.ntnu.edu.tw/bookindex/?mode=detail&id=1244

 

MLA 格式
張源泉(Yuan-Chuan Chang),〈德國中小學學生法律地位之萌芽期〉。《教育研究集刊》第 57 期(2011),取自:http://bulletin.ed.ntnu.edu.tw/bookindex/?mode=detail&id=1244


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