第六十二輯.第一期 - 2016-03-31

自由與紀律:Montessori的人格教育思想

Freedom and Discipline: A Study on Montessori’s Theory of Personality Education

作 者:
李崗、楊淑雅 / Kang Lee, Shu-Ya Yang
關鍵字:
Montessori、人格教育、自由、紀律 / Montessori, personality education, freedom, discipline
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
本研究旨在分析Montessori(1870-1952)的人格教育思想,主要運用詮釋學的研究方法:一方面聚焦於《吸收性心智》(The Absorbent Mind)、《童年的秘密》(The Secret of Childhood)、《發現兒童》(The Discovery of Child)及《了解你的孩子》(What You Should Know about Your Child)等文本的理解,二方面來回於個人經驗與文本脈絡之間的對話與省思。結果發現,可歸納為以下四點:一、人格是精神生命肉身化的結果,人格統整的關鍵是意志發展。二、人格教育的目標在於建立紀律,人格教育的原則是給予自由,人格教育的方法是透過工作。三、人格教育的歷程始於兒童的自由選擇,繼之以專注地自發性工作,透 過意志發展逐漸樂於服從,最後形成內在紀律,表現出寧靜的心境。四、人格教育的實施,關鍵時期為零至三歲,可以運用靜默遊戲、走線練習、穿脫衣服、準備茶會、舉辦生日會等方式進行。最後,本文更針對其思想內涵,提出10點評析,以供參考。
This study aims to analyze Maria Montessori’s theory of personality education. The author adopts interpretative methodology to focus on the following texts: The Absorbent Mind, The Secret of Childhood, The Discovery of the Child, and What You Should Know about Your Child. In this paper, the conclusion can be summarized into four points: First, personality is formed in the development of body and spirit, and the will is the key to integrate the whole system of personality. Second, the goal of personality education is to establish the discipline of life, and the method is to let children work spontaneously with the sense of duty in a free situation. Third, children must have the freedom to choose, then they can learn how to exercise their will to obey the inner discipline. Fourth, there are five examples provided for the implementation of personality education.

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