第六十二輯.第二期 - 2016-06-30

Aristotle幸福論觀點下的致福之道與幸福的脆弱性─幸福、運氣與品德教育

The pursuit of happiness and the vulnerability of happiness: An Aristotelian eudaimonistic viewpoint—Happiness, luck, and character education

作 者:
陳伊琳 / Yi-Lin Chen
關鍵字:
Aristotle、幸福、德行、運氣/機運、品德教育 / Aristotle, eudaimonia/ happiness, virtue, luck/fortune, character education
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
一般同意教育應該協助受教者過幸福的生活。其中涉及的概念性問題—幸福是什麼有待釐清,而方法問題—教育如何促成受教者幸福則需要詳細論述。尤其面對近來其他學術領域對幸福議題的研究熱潮,教育界有必要重新檢視「幸福」概念,亟思教育促成受教者幸福的可為之道。本文從Aristotle幸福論觀點切入,彰顯影響幸福的兩股力量:一方面說明「修德」與「行德」為「致福」的必要條件,對於德行潛能上未受損傷的人而言,人人皆可透過努力而追求幸福;另一方面必須承認幸福無法完全自外於命運之輪的影響力,各式運氣因子涉入個體品德形塑(修德)與德行展現(行德)過程中,這凸顯個體在致福過程中,因運氣介入而顯現的脆弱性。當代品德教育致力於「德行陶養」可視為幸福論意義上的協助受教者的致福之道。惟教育面對各式運氣因子作用力的無力處尚待給予平衡性的強調。
It is generally agreed among educators that education should assist the educated in leading a flourishing and happy life. However, this conceptual question, “what is happiness” is in want of clarification, and “how exactly can education help the educated lead such a fulfilling life” also needs to be expounded. In response to the recent growing interest in happiness studies in various other disciplines, the author suggests that it is necessary to re-examine the concept of happiness and to think about methods to enhance individual happiness in the context of education. An Aristotelian eudaimonistic perspective sorts out two strings of power effecting happiness. In one string, each person who is not completely maimed in terms of virtues is likely to lead a flourishing and happy life with effort, since the possession and exercise of virtues are essential for happiness. For the other string, it must be acknowledged that happiness is vulnerable to the wheel of fortune, for various factors of luck are inevitably involved in the cultivation and exercise of virtues. Hence, the vulnerability and fragility of happiness comes to the fore. For that matter, the contemporary character education generally distinguished by the inculcation of virtues is a practice of enabling the educated to lead a flourishing and happy life in a eudaimonistic sense. With regard to the influence of various factors of luck, however, the powerlessness of education also needs to be recognized and taken into account.

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