第六十二輯.第三期 - 2016-09-30

重探伯恩斯坦的教育機制理論:以新 加坡華文中學的國家改革考試為例

Reevaluating Pedagogic Device: The Case of State Examination Reforms in Singapore, from the Late-1950s to the Early-1960s

作 者:
黃庭康 / Ting-Hong Wong
關鍵字:
伯恩斯坦、國家教育政策、教育機制、評核與考試、新加坡 / Basil Bernstein, state education policy, pedagogic device, assessment and examination, Singapore
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
伯恩斯坦(Basil Bernstein)的教育機制理論假設學校主要是透過教學溝通實 踐打造意識型態,進而達到社會再生產的效果。但此理論之出發點忽略了教育體 系的社會篩選作用,有礙學者們思考學校的生活機會分配功能對教育機制運作的 可能影響。把學校教育簡單地視為溝通傳意機制,也導致伯恩斯坦假設評估規則 只是協助教學機制落實教育論述的手段,忽視了在具體的學校與教育體制中,考 評往往是社會篩選與淘汰的重要機制。這些侷限引致伯恩斯坦沒有考慮到評估規 則可以透過控制有價值的教育機會與社會位置的分配來左右教育機制的運作。本 文試圖突破伯恩斯坦的限制,指出當考評具備社會篩選功能時,評估規則較能幫 助落實教育論述。為了審視評估的社會篩選功能,筆者進一步發展伯恩斯坦的理論,提出評估規則包含了時間、後果與區辨三大次規則,並強調掌權者可透過三個評估次規則調控社會篩選的過程與結果,進而落實意識與權力再生產。筆者並以新加坡華文中學考試改革的歷史案例說明此論點。
Bernstein’s theory of the pedagogic device assumes that schools perform a reproductive function through communicative practices that shape consciousness and identity. This assumption neglects that schools also help perpetuate power relations through functioning as an apparatus of social selection. Because of this skewed emphasis, Bernstein considers evaluative rules purely as a device to help realize pedagogic discourse and overlooks that in the concrete contexts of education systems, evaluations are most often instantiated as summative assessments that function as distributors of valuable life opportunities. This theoretical blind-spot of Bernstein has prevented scholars from discovering the implications of schools’ social selection functions for the operation of the pedagogic device. Using the historical example of state examination reforms on Chinese middle schools in the late-1950s to the early- 1960s, I seek to fill this gap. I contend that assessments can help actualize official pedagogic discourse more effectively when they also exert profound impacts on allocation of valued social positions and educational opportunities. My contention is illustrated by the case of postwar Singapore, where the ruling regime had more success in replacing the Sino-centric pedagogic discourse of Chinese institutions with a more Singaporean-centered one after state-run exams targeting students’ futures in education and employment were imposed.

十七中學明年開辦高中一年級(1961,12月29日)。星洲日報,第五版。
[17 Junior High Schools Plan to Run Senior Middle Classes Next Year (1961, December 29).SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

十七間中學明年開辦高級中學(1961,12月21日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[17 Junior High Schools Plan to Run Senior Middle Classes Next Year (1961, December 21).SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.]

三三制與四二制當局決同時施行(1961,9月10日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[3-3 and 4-2 Systems Will Be Implemented by the Ministry of Education (1961, September 10).SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6]

不參加畢業班會考,華中開除五名學生(1949,12月20日)。南僑日報,第五版。

[5 Chinese School Students Expelled for Boycotting School Leaving Exam (1949, December20). NAN CHIAU JIT POH, p. 5.] 

中四會考成績公佈(1965,2月27日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[GSFE Results Released (1965, February 27). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

中四會考昨起舉行,考生出席幾及全部(1962,11月28日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[GSFE Started with almost Full Attendance Yesterday (1965, November 28). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

中四會考昨進入第二日罷考生續活動(1961,11月29日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[Second Day of GSFE: Boycotted Continued (1961, November 29). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

中四補考昨續舉行,考場門外已無糾察(1961,12月6日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[Supplementary GSFE Held Without Pickets (1961, December 6). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

中學中文課程標準已編竣出版(1959,5月9日)。星洲日報,第十五版。
[Chinese Language Curriculum Guidelines for Junior High Schools Released (1959, May 9).SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 15.] 

中學生行動委會召開中學生家長大會(1961,12月4日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[Parent Conference Held by Student Action Committee (1961, December 4). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

中學改制任由校方選擇,各校董事咸認並不是好辦法(1961,9月16日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[Managerial Boards from Chinese Middle Schools Declines Choosing their Systems by Schools Individually (1961, September 16). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.]

中學改制問題各方意見一斑(1961,9月14日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[Disagreements over School System Changes (1961, September 14). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

中學改制問題南大學生會再度聲明(1961,9月11日)。星洲日報,第八版。 

[CMSEBAC on School Systems Change (1961, September 11). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 8.] 

去年華校中四會考及格名單公布(1964,3月19日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[Chinese Schools Releases List of GSFE-Passers Last Year (1964, March 19). SIN CHEW JIT

POH, p. 6.] 未參與中四會考學生,一部分昨補考(1961,12月5日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[Some Students Took the Supplementary GSFE Yesterday (1961, December 5). SIN CHEW JIT

POH, p. 6.] 全星華文中學校長贊成採行四二制度(1961,9月3日)。星洲日報,第五版。
[All Chinese School Principals Agreed to Adopt 4-2 System (1961, September 3). SIN CHEW

JIT POH, p. 5.] 各中學校長分函中四班學生家長闡述會考重要性(1961,11月21日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[School Principals Explaines the Importance of GSFE to Parents (1961, November 21). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.]

初中畢業會考學生必須參加(1952,7月9日)。星洲日報,第八版。 

[Junior High Students Must Take Leaving School Exam (1952, July 9). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 8.]

南大副校長發表談話支持董教意見(1961,9月7日)。星洲日報,第八版。

[Vice-Chancellor of Nantah Endorses Board of Directors (1961, September 7). SIN CHEW JIT

POH, p. 8.] 南大畢業同學會發表對中學改制問題聲明(1961,9月6日)。星洲日報,第八版。

[CMSEBAC’s Statement on System Change in Middle Schools (1961, September 6). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 8.] 

南大學生會主催座談華文中學四年制問題(1961,8月2日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[CMSEBAC Advocating a Seminar on the 4-2 System (1961, August 2). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p.6.] 

南大學生會邀中學畢業班級長下週三舉行座談(1961,8月4日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[CMSEBAC Invites Class Leaders of Graduating Class for Conference Next Wednesday (1961,August 4). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

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[Admission Details of NTU and Nee Ann Polytechnic Next Year (1964, October 11). SIN CHEW

JIT POH, p. 6.] 星大為華校生開辦一年制大學先修班(1962,3月2日)。星洲日報,第六版。
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星洲華校會考第二日,百餘學生交白卷(1951,10月6日)。星洲日報,第八版。 

[Second Day of Leaving School Exam of Chinese Schools, Over Hundreds of Students Handed in Blank Answer Sheets (1951, October 6). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 8.] 

星馬各地華校高中畢業會考(1951,2月19日)。星洲日報,第四版。

[Leaving School Exams Held in Singapore and Malaysia (1951, February 19). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 4.] 

星馬高初中簡師會考,七百餘學生應試(1951,10月5日)。星洲日報,第四版。

[Over 700 Students Attended Junior High School Teacher Exam in Singapore and Malaysia(1951, October 5). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 4.] 

首屆中四會考昨起舉行一部分學生實行罷考(1961,11月28日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[The First Ever GSFE Boycotted by Students (1961, November 28). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

校聯會商中學改制問題對四二制不表異議(1961,8月14日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[The SCMSTA: No Comment on the 4/2 systems (1961, August 14). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

校聯與九中學校長商初中會考問題(1952,5月30日)。星洲日報,第四版。

[High School Association and 9 Principals Discussed the JME (1952, May 30). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 4.]

馬大文法理科先修班招非英校學生入學(1960,7月18日)。星洲日報,第六版。
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(1960, July 18). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 馬大理科先修班昨上第一課(1959,7月14日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[First Preparatory Program for UM’s Science Faculty Started (1959, July 14). SIN CHEW JITPOH, p. 6.]

馬大理學院一項大改革(1959,6月12日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[A Big Change in UM’s Science Faculty (1959, June 12). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

馬來亞華校會考恢復(1946,9月19日)。星洲日報,第三版。
[Chinese Schools in Malaysia Resumed Normal Class Exam (1946, September 19). SIN CHEW

JIT POH, p. 3.] 教長接受董教建議保證中學教育六年(1961,10月6日)。星洲日報,第五版。
[Minister of Education Promised to Keep the 6-Year Middle School Program (1961, October 6).

SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 教長楊玉麟昨晚廣播感謝學生家長保護子女利益(1962,12月5日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[Yong Praised Parents for Protect their Childrens’ Rights. (1962, December 5). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.]

設立大學先修班急著不容緩(1961,7月1日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[No More Delay on Launching the University Preparatory Programs (1961, July 1). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

華文中學校長昨舉行座談會,對中四學生前途提出具體解決建議(1961,7月7日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[Chinese School Principals Offered Solutions to Prospects of Middle Four Students(1961, July 7). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

華文中學校長籲請教部緩施中學改制(1959,2月21日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[Chinese School Principals Asked Ministry of Education to Postpone Changing System of Middle Schools (1959, February 21). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

華文中學實施改制後第一次高中會考本年十一月舉行(1963,1月9日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[GSFE Will be Held for the First Time this November (1963, January 9). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.]

華文教育團體密切關注中四生罷考事件(1961,11月30日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[Chinese Educators Minitoring Exam Boycott (1961, November 30). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.]

華校中四畢業會考決照規定日期舉行(1961,11月23日)。星洲日報,第七版。

[GSFE Will Proceed as Scheduled (1961, November 23). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 7.] 

華校中四會考今最後一日,昨設四流動考場(1961,12月1日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[Last Day of GSFE: Four Mobile Venues Installed (1961, December 1). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.]

華校中學生求職好消息(1957,12月11日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[Good News for Job-Seekers from Chinese Schools (1957, December 1). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

華校中學改制今年開始準備(1959,1月14日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[Preparation Started for System Change in Chinese Middle Schools (1959, January 14).SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

華校中學改制議明年不可能實行(1958,11月19日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[System Change in Chinese School Next Year Infeasible (1958, November 19). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

華校中學改革將照舊實行(1959,6月20日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[System Reform in Chinese Middle School Will Proceed as Planned (1959, June 20).

SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 華校高中畢業會考今年考期已訂定(1959,7月7日)。星洲日報,第五版。
[Date of School-Leaving Exam for Chinese Schools Confirmed (1959, July 7). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

華校高級中學畢業會考成績昨正式公布(1964,3月17日)。星洲日報,第六版。

[School-Leaving Exam Results Released Yesterday (1964, March 17). SIN CHEW JIT

POH, p. 6.] 華校教師總會理事會議,派五代表謁教長(1961,11月20日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[5 Representatives from CSC-TA Met Minister of Education (1961, November 20). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

華校教總討論中學改制問題(1961,9月4日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[SCSTA Discusses System Change of Middle Schools (1961, September 4). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.]

華校會考即將舉行(1946,10月29日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[JME Will be Held Soon (1946, October 29). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

開辦後期中學,各方認極迫切(1961,8月1日)。星洲日報,第六版。
[Urgency of Running Senior Middle Classes Recognized (1961, August 1). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.]

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會考成績不及格不能任華校教師(1951,104日)。星洲日報,第八版。

[Students Failed SME Ineligible for Teaching (1951, October 4). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 8.] 

董教聯及文教團體議決華教體系應統一(1961,102日)。星洲日報,第五版。

[Systems of Chinese Schools Should be Unified, Declared CSC-TA and other Groups (1961,October 2). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

董教聯會八校代表集會議定堅持中學六年制度(1961,89日)。星洲日報,第五版。 

[8 Representatives from Chinese Schools and CSC-TA Pledged to Keep Program of Chinese Schools 6-Year. (1961, August 9). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 5.] 

關心罷考事件,全星校友會發聯合聲明(1961,123日)。星洲日報,第六版。 

[CMSEBAC on GSFE Boycott (1961, December 3). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 6.] 

關於初中會考問題,華校代表與研究局昨談商(1952,715日)。星洲日報,第四版。 

[Representatives Met the Offices for Problems of JME (1952, July 15). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p.4.] 

警察當局錄取華校男女學生加以訓練成為警長(1958,93日)。星洲日報,第八版。

[Chinese School Graduates Recruited for Police Training Program (1958, September 3). SIN CHEW JIT POH, p. 8.] 

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