第六十四輯.第三期 - 2018-09-30

論國際教育中愛國主義與世界主義的 矛盾與出路

On the Contradictions Between Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism and Their Resolutions Within International Education

作 者:
黃文定 / Wen-Ding Huang
關鍵字:
K. A. Appiah、世界主義、多元認同、國際教育、愛國主義 / K. A. Appiah, cosmopolitanism, multiple identities, international education, patriotism
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
本文旨在運用教育詮釋學方法,爬梳國際教育中世界主義與愛國主義之間的 兩種矛盾,分析Appiah「有根的世界主義」(或稱「世界主義的愛國主義」)觀 點及其對兩種矛盾的調和,並闡釋國際教育面對矛盾的出路。Appiah世界主義觀 點的兩項核心理念,是對人類尊嚴與自主性的普遍關懷與對差異的尊重。針對道 德判斷觀點之普遍主義與社群主義的矛盾,Appiah承認普世價值的存在,但強調 我們應接受不同地方對同一普世價值的不同詮釋與實踐方式的合理性,因此, 教師應指導學生透過跨文化對話,理解不同在地脈絡的人對價值詮釋與實踐的多 樣性。針對忠誠與認同對象之世界優先與國家優先的矛盾,Appiah指出我們應釐 清「倫理」與「道德」兩種義務的區別,成為具多元忠誠與認同的世界公民,因 此,教師應指導學生跳脫「國家-世界」二元對立,認識身分認同與義務之多樣 性,自主地創造自我。
The purposes of this article were to adopt the method of educational hermeneutics to examine the two contradictions between cosmopolitanism and patriotism within international education, to analyze Appiah’s viewpoints of “rooted cosmopolitanism” (or “cosmopolitan patriotism”) and reconciliation of the two contradictions, and to elaborate the resolutions to the contradictions in international education. The two core ideas of Appiah’s cosmopolitan viewpoints were universal concern for human dignity and autonomy and respect for difference. In terms of the contradiction between universalism and communitarianism in moral judgments, Appiah acknowledged the existence of universal values, but emphasized that we should accept the legitimacy of different interpretations and practical approaches of the same universal value in different places. Hence, teachers should guide students to understand the diversity of interpretations and practices of values through intercultural conversation with people from different contexts. Regarding the contradiction of primary loyalty and identity between the state and the world, Appiah indicated that one should make a distinction of obligations between “ethics” and “morality” and can be a world citizen with multiple loyalties and identities. Therefore, teachers should educate students to go beyond the dichotomy of “nation-world” and understand the diversity of identities and obligations to create self autonomously.

 

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