第六十四輯.第三期 - 2018-09-30

論國際教育中愛國主義與世界主義的 矛盾與出路

On the Contradictions Between Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism and Their Resolutions Within International Education

作 者:
黃文定 / Wen-Ding Huang
K. A. Appiah、世界主義、多元認同、國際教育、愛國主義 / K. A. Appiah, cosmopolitanism, multiple identities, international education, patriotism
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
本文旨在運用教育詮釋學方法,爬梳國際教育中世界主義與愛國主義之間的 兩種矛盾,分析Appiah「有根的世界主義」(或稱「世界主義的愛國主義」)觀 點及其對兩種矛盾的調和,並闡釋國際教育面對矛盾的出路。Appiah世界主義觀 點的兩項核心理念,是對人類尊嚴與自主性的普遍關懷與對差異的尊重。針對道 德判斷觀點之普遍主義與社群主義的矛盾,Appiah承認普世價值的存在,但強調 我們應接受不同地方對同一普世價值的不同詮釋與實踐方式的合理性,因此, 教師應指導學生透過跨文化對話,理解不同在地脈絡的人對價值詮釋與實踐的多 樣性。針對忠誠與認同對象之世界優先與國家優先的矛盾,Appiah指出我們應釐 清「倫理」與「道德」兩種義務的區別,成為具多元忠誠與認同的世界公民,因 此,教師應指導學生跳脫「國家-世界」二元對立,認識身分認同與義務之多樣 性,自主地創造自我。
The purposes of this article were to adopt the method of educational hermeneutics to examine the two contradictions between cosmopolitanism and patriotism within international education, to analyze Appiah’s viewpoints of “rooted cosmopolitanism” (or “cosmopolitan patriotism”) and reconciliation of the two contradictions, and to elaborate the resolutions to the contradictions in international education. The two core ideas of Appiah’s cosmopolitan viewpoints were universal concern for human dignity and autonomy and respect for difference. In terms of the contradiction between universalism and communitarianism in moral judgments, Appiah acknowledged the existence of universal values, but emphasized that we should accept the legitimacy of different interpretations and practical approaches of the same universal value in different places. Hence, teachers should guide students to understand the diversity of interpretations and practices of values through intercultural conversation with people from different contexts. Regarding the contradiction of primary loyalty and identity between the state and the world, Appiah indicated that one should make a distinction of obligations between “ethics” and “morality” and can be a world citizen with multiple loyalties and identities. Therefore, teachers should educate students to go beyond the dichotomy of “nation-world” and understand the diversity of identities and obligations to create self autonomously.


朱啟華(2013)。W. Rein理念學說的修正及其教育意義。當代教育研究季刊,21(1), 1-28。 

[Chu, C.-H. (2013). W. Rein’s doctrine of ideas and its implications. Contemporary Educational Research Quarterly, 21(1), 1-28.] 

張君玫(2006)。「世界」的翻譯與建構— 中國西化論述中的幾種「世界主義」。東 吳社會學報,2059-108。 

[Chuang, C.-M. (2006). The translation and construction of Shi-Jie: Several cosmopolitanisms in the discursive field of Westernization in early twentieth century China. Soochow Journal of Sociology, 20, 59-108.] 

教育部(2011)。中小學國際教育白皮書:扎根培育21世紀國際化人才。臺北巿:作 者。 

[The Ministry of Education. (2011). A white paper on international education for primary and secondary schools: Developing 21st century competencies for our next generation. Taipei, Taiwan: Author.] 

教育部(2012)。國際教育融入課程資源手冊— 國小版。臺北巿:作者。
[The Ministry of Education. (2012). Primary and secondary resource book for infusing international education into curriculum. Taipei, Taiwan: Author.] 


[Liang, F.-C. (2000). Hermeneutic method and its application in educational research. In Graduate Institute of Education National Chung Cheng University (Ed.), Qualitative research methods (pp. 221-238). Kaohsiung, Taiwan: Liwen.] 


[Fei, X.-T. (1948). From the soil: The foundations of Chinese society. Shanghai, China: Shanghai Bookstore.]

黃文定、詹寶菁(2013)。邁向相互瞭解與仇恨化解之路— 以巴共構歷史教科書之探究。載於甄曉蘭(主編),和平教育— 理念與實踐(頁165-186)。新北巿:國家教育研究院。

[Huang, W.-D., & Chan, P.-J. (2013). A way towards mutual understanding and the elimination of hatred: A study on jointly construction of history textbooks by Israel and Palestine. In H.-L. Chen (Ed.), Peace education: Perspectives into Practice (pp. 165-186). New Taipei, Taiwan: National Academy for Educational Research.]

黃綉媛(1996)。民族主義與世界主義的歷史教育:一個國際比較的研究。中學教育學 報,377-90。 

[Huang, H.-Y. (1996). History education in nationalism and cosmopolitanism: A study on international comparison. Journal of Secondary Education, 3, 77-90.] 


[Yang, S.-K. (2013). Retrospect and prospect of theory and practice in the international education. Journal of Comparative Education, 74, 1-32.]


[Cheng, B.-S. (1995). Differential mode of the association and Chinese organizational behavior. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, 3, 142-219.] 

鍾宜興、黃碧智(2013)。流動的文化疆界與跨界的心靈— 國際教育相關概念的釐清。教育資料與研究,1101-26

[Chung, Y.-H., & Huang, B.-C. (2013). Liquid cultural borders and cross-border mind: Clarification of the related conceptions of international education. Educational Resources and Research, 110, 1-26.] 


[Lo, C.-P. (2009). Nationalism, history education and national identity. Chaoyang Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(1), 229-254.]

Agyeman-Duah, I. (2012). Kwame Anthony Appiah, the “postmodern Socrates” gets his honour. New African, 516, 64-67.

Appiah, K. A. (1996). Cosmopolitan patriots. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 21-29). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Appiah, K. A. (1997). Cosmopolitan patriots. Critical Inquiry, 23, 617-639.

Appiah, K. A. (2005). The ethics of identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Appiah, K. A. (2006a). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of strangers. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

Appiah, K. A. (2006b). Reply to Gracia, Moody-Adams and Nussbaum. Journal of Social Philosophy, 37(2), 314-322.

Appiah, K. A. (2008). Education for global citizenship. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 107(1), 83-99.

Appiah, K. A. (2009). Cosmopolitanism. In A. Taylor (Ed.), Examined life: Excursions with contemporary thinkers (pp. 87-113). New York, NY: The New Press.

Barber, B. R. (1996). Constitutional faith. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 30-37). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Beck, U. (2002). The cosmopolitan society and its enemies. Theory, Culture & Society, 19(1-2), 17-44.

Beck, U. (2003). Toward a new critical theory with a cosmopolitan intent. Constellations, 10(4), 453-468.

Berns, W. (2007). Patriotism and multiculturalism. In P. Abbott (Ed.), The many faces of patriotism (pp. 3-13). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Bok, S. (1996). From part to whole. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 38-44). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Brubaker, R. (2007). In the name of the nation: Reflections on nationalism and patriotism. In P. Abbott (Ed.), The many faces of patriotism (pp. 37-51). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Caine, B. (2010). Writing cosmopolitan lives: Joseph and Kwame Anthony Appiah. History Workshop Journal, 70, 153-171.

Carter, A. (2001). The political theory of global citizenship. London, UK: Routledge.

Citrin, J., Wong, C., & Duff, B. (2001). The meaning of American national identity: Patterns of ethnic conflict and consensus. In R. D. Ashmore, L. Jussim, & D. Wilder (Eds.), Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction (pp. 71-100). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Cross, B. E., & Molnar, A. (1994). Global issues in curriculum development. Peabody Journal of Education, 69(4), 131-140. 

Department for Education and Skills. (2004). Putting the world into world-class education: An international strategy for education, skills and children’s services. Retrieved from https:// www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/1077-2004GIF-EN-01.pdf 

Dworkin, R. (2000). Sovereign virtue: The theory and practice of equality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 


Falk, R. (1996). Revisioning cosmopolitanism. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 53- 60). Boston, MA: Beacon. 

Frey, C. J., & Whitehead, D. M. (2009). International education policies and the boundaries of global citizenship in the US. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(2), 269-290. 

Gracia, J. J. E. (2006). Individuality, life plans, and identity: Foundational concepts in Appiah’s The Ethics of Identity. Journal of Social Philosophy, 37(2), 283-291. 

Hand, M., & Pearce, J. (2009). Patriotism in British schools: Principles, practices and press hysteria. In B. Haynes (Ed.), Patriotism and citizenship education (pp. 72-84). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. 

Held, D. (2011). Cosmopolitanism: Ideals and realities. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Himmelfarb, G. (1996). The illusions of cosmopolitanism. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 72-77). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Hoffman, J. (2004). Citizenship beyond the state. London, UK: Sage.

Jeffers, C. (2013). Appiah’s cosmopolitanism. The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 51(4), 488-510.

Johnson, W. (2010). A conversation with Kwame Anthony Appiah. Retrieved from http://mandala.uga.edu/cosmo/convo-kwame-cosmo.php

Keller, S. (2005). Patriotism as bad faith. Ethics, 115(3), 563-592.

Kendall, G., Woodward, I., & Skrbis, Z. (2009). The sociology of cosmopolitanism: Globalization, identity, culture and government. New York, NY: Palgrave

Macmillan. Kimonen, E. (2015). Education and society in comparative context. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense.

Kleingeld, P. (1999). Six varieties of cosmopolitanism in late eighteenth-century Germany. Journal of the History of Ideas, 60(3), 505-524.

Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Loewen, J. W. (2007). Lies my teacher told me: Everything your American history textbook got wrong (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Touchstone.

MacIntyre, A. (1984). Is patriotism a virtue? Retrieved from https://mirror.explodie.org/Is%20 Patriotism%20a%20Virtue-1984.pdf

Margalit, A. (2002). The ethics of memory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

Marshall, H. (2016). Education for global citizenship: Reflecting upon the instrumentalist agendas at play. In M. Hayden, J. Thompson, & T. Bunnell (Eds.), International education: Nature and meaning of international education (Vol. 1, pp. 241-258). London, UK: Sage. 

McConnell, M. W. (1996). Don’t neglect the little platoons. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 78-84). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Mitchell, K., & Parker, W. (2008). I pledge allegiance to ⋯ Flexible citizenship and shifting scales of belonging. Teachers College Record, 110(4), 775-804.

Newman, R. (2005). Appiah, Kwame Anthony. In K. A. Appiah & H. L. Gates, Jr. (Eds.), Africana: The encyclopedia of the African & African American experience (2nd ed., pp. 236-237). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Nussbaum, M. C. (1996). Patriotism and cosmopolitanism. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For Love of Country? (pp. 3-17). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Nussbaum, M. C. (1997). Cultivating humanity: A classical defense of reform in liberal education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Nussbaum, M. C. (2006). Political soul-making and the imminent demise of liberal education. Journal of Social Philosophy, 37(2), 301-313.

Papastephanou, M. (2013). Cosmopolitanism discarded: Martha Nussbaum’s patriotic education and the inward-outward distinction. Ethics and Education, 8(2), 166-178.

Pike, G. (2000). Global education and national identity: In pursuit of meaning. Theory into Practice, 39(2), 64-73.

Pinsky, R. (1996). Eros against Esperanto. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 85-90). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Poole, R. (2007). Patriotism and nationalism. In I. Primoratz & A. Pavkovic (Eds.), Patriotism: Philosophical and political perspectives (pp. 129-145). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

Putnam, H. (1996). Must we choose between patriotism and universal reason? In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 91-97). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Renshon, S. A. (2005). The 50% American: Immigration and national identity in an age of terror. Washington. DC: Georgetown University Press.

Schumann, C. (2016). What love of country? Tensions, questions and contexts for patriotism and cosmopolitanism in education. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 50(2), 261-271.

Tan, K. C. (2004). Justice without borders: Cosmopolitanism, nationalism, and patriotismCambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Tan, K. C. (2012). Cosmopolitanism and patriotism. In W. Kymlicka & K. Walker (Eds.), Rooted cosmopolitanism: Canada and the world (pp. 31-46). Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press. Taylor, C. (1996). Why democracy needs patriotism. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp.119-121). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Taylor, C. (1998). Nationalism and modernity. In J. A. Hall (Ed.), The state of the nation: Ernest Gellner and the theory of nationalism (pp. 191-218). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Theiss-Morse, E. (2009). Who counts as an American? The boundaries of national identity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Thorpe, T. (2008). Understanding citizenship 3 (2nd ed.). London, UK: Hodder Education. 

Tolstoy, L. (1896). Patriotism or peace. Retrieved from http://www.nonresistance.org/docs_pdf/Tolstoy/Patriotism_or_Peace.pdf

Viroli, M. (1997). For love of country: An essay on patriotism and nationalism. Oxford, UK:Clarendon.

Wallerstein, I. (1996). Neither patriotism nor cosmopolitanism. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 122-124). Boston, MA: Beacon.

Walzer, M. (1996). Spheres of affection. In J. Cohen (Ed.), For love of country? (pp. 125-127).Boston, MA: Beacon.