第六十四輯.第四期(九年國教實施五十年:回顧與前瞻專刊) - 2018-12-31

近50年來國民教育發展之探究: 九年國民教育與十二年國民基本教育 政策之分析

Basic Education Development in the Past 50 Years: An Analysis of the 9-year Compulsory Education and the 12-year Basic Education Policy Implementation in Taiwan

作 者:
吳清山 / Ching-Shan Wu
關鍵字:
九年國民教育、十二年國民基本教育、教育政策 / 9-year compulsory education, 12-year basic education, educational policy
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
1968年實施的九年國民教育和2014年實施的十二年國民基本教育,可說是我 國跨世紀最重要的教育工程,影響我國教育發展極為深遠。本文旨在探究近50 年來國民教育之發展,並以九年國民教育和十二年國民基本教育政策為例,就其 發展背景、法律依據、政策內涵、成效檢討等部分進行說明。首先,探究其發展 背景,兩者都是基於社會發展、教育潮流和人才培育的背景而來,但九年國民教 育政策之推動,有強人主導,雖規劃時間較短,但比十二年國民基本教育要來得 順利;其次,就其法律依據來看,九年國民教育是以《九年國民教育實施條例》 為依據,而十二年國民基本教育則以《國民教育法》和《高級中等教育法》為依 據;第三,就其定位、目標、入學方式、課程及教學、經費及學費和師資分析其 政策內涵;最後,就其實施成效進行檢討,其中以入學方式最受關注,而九年國民教育和十二年國民基本教育雖能有助於人才培育,但就減輕學生過度學習壓力的政策目標言,效果實屬有限,此為十二年國民基本教育必須改進的重要課題。
This paper explores the development of basic education in Taiwan during the past 50 years, focusing on the implementation of the 9-year compulsory education and the 12-year Basic Education. The former, being put into effect since 1968, includes six years for elementary education and three for junior high education. The latter, being carried out since 2014, include nine years for compulsory education and additional three for senior secondary education. Both were the most important educational policies in Taiwan across the century, and had extremely far-reaching impact on the development of education in Taiwan. The backgrounds, legal bases, policy contents, and effectiveness of both systems are reviewed in this paper.

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