第六十四輯.第四期(九年國教實施五十年:回顧與前瞻專刊) - 2018-12-31

研究紀要/學術評論:知之為不知,不知為知之,學習也: 論不知本位教與學

Research Notes/Scholarly Commentaries:Knowing is Unknowing and Unknown is Known: Discussing Ignorance-based Teaching and Learning

作 者:
曾正宜 / Jeng-Yi Tzeng
關鍵字:
不知認識論、不知本位教學、知識本位教學 / ignorance epistemology, ignorance-based pedagogy, knowledge- based pedagogy
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
孔子認為真知即是要明辨知與不知的差別,但資訊爆炸的時代裡,知與不知 的界線日益模糊。從老子哲學中可知,知與不知之間原是彼此共生相成。就此觀 之,目前主導課室教學的知識本位教學觀,以追求正統強效知識為目標,傾向固 守既定主流求知方法,卻忽略了知與不知原是相互定義,從知中求不知能趨動知 識擾動與翻新的面向。本文比較知識本位與不知本位教學模式的差異,探討以不 知為始、為歷程以及為收尾的教與學,並介紹一個強調不知的教學範例,藉以說 明未來教學不應僅止於問題解決之求知能力的培養,也應強調如何視知為不知及 以不知為知之「求不知」的教學觀。
Confucius argues that true knowing is to discern the difference between the known and the unknown, but the line becomes blurry in the time of information exploration. From Laozi’s perspective, the known and the unknown are not only symbiotic but also mutually cultivating. Knowledge-based pedagogy, which dominates current school teaching, aims at pursuing orthodox powerful knowledge, and tends to reinforce extant mainstream disciplines. But, it overlooks the duality and mutuality of the known and the unknown, and thus fails to empower students to challenge and renovate knowledge by pursuing the unknown from the known. In this article, I compare the knowledge- based pedagogy with the ignorance-based pedagogy, discuss theories underpinning the beginning, the process, and the conclusion of ignorance-based teaching and learning, and introduce an exemplary curriculum that accentuates using ignorance to induce deep learning. These are to argue that future-oriented teaching should not only focus on problem-solving abilities, but also strive for ignorance-based teaching and learning that help learners to see the unknown in the known, and to identify the known by the unknown.

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