第六十四輯.第四期(九年國教實施五十年:回顧與前瞻專刊) - 2018-12-31

研究紀要/學術評論:知之為不知,不知為知之,學習也: 論不知本位教與學

Research Notes/Scholarly Commentaries:Knowing is Unknowing and Unknown is Known: Discussing Ignorance-based Teaching and Learning

作 者:
曾正宜 / Jeng-Yi Tzeng
不知認識論、不知本位教學、知識本位教學 / ignorance epistemology, ignorance-based pedagogy, knowledge- based pedagogy
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
孔子認為真知即是要明辨知與不知的差別,但資訊爆炸的時代裡,知與不知 的界線日益模糊。從老子哲學中可知,知與不知之間原是彼此共生相成。就此觀 之,目前主導課室教學的知識本位教學觀,以追求正統強效知識為目標,傾向固 守既定主流求知方法,卻忽略了知與不知原是相互定義,從知中求不知能趨動知 識擾動與翻新的面向。本文比較知識本位與不知本位教學模式的差異,探討以不 知為始、為歷程以及為收尾的教與學,並介紹一個強調不知的教學範例,藉以說 明未來教學不應僅止於問題解決之求知能力的培養,也應強調如何視知為不知及 以不知為知之「求不知」的教學觀。
Confucius argues that true knowing is to discern the difference between the known and the unknown, but the line becomes blurry in the time of information exploration. From Laozi’s perspective, the known and the unknown are not only symbiotic but also mutually cultivating. Knowledge-based pedagogy, which dominates current school teaching, aims at pursuing orthodox powerful knowledge, and tends to reinforce extant mainstream disciplines. But, it overlooks the duality and mutuality of the known and the unknown, and thus fails to empower students to challenge and renovate knowledge by pursuing the unknown from the known. In this article, I compare the knowledge- based pedagogy with the ignorance-based pedagogy, discuss theories underpinning the beginning, the process, and the conclusion of ignorance-based teaching and learning, and introduce an exemplary curriculum that accentuates using ignorance to induce deep learning. These are to argue that future-oriented teaching should not only focus on problem-solving abilities, but also strive for ignorance-based teaching and learning that help learners to see the unknown in the known, and to identify the known by the unknown.

[Yu, P.-L. (1990). New translation of Laozi reader. Taipei, Taiwan: Sanmin.] 賴錫三(2015)。《老子》的渾沌思維與倫理關懷。臺大中文學報,491-42
[Lai, H.-S. (2015). The chaos and ethical concerns in the Laozi. Bulletin of the Department of Chinese Literature, 49, 1-42.]

Alexander, C. M., Kruczek, T., & Ponterotto, J. G. (2005). Building multicultural competencies 

in school counselor trainees: An international immersion experience. Counselor Education 

& Supervision, 44, 255-266.
Anderson, J. R. (1985). 
Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York, NY: W. H. 

Argyris, C., & Schon, S. (1978). 
Organisational learning: A theory in action perspective

Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Arlin, P. K. (1989). The problem of the problem. In J. D. Sinnott (Ed.), 
Everyday problem 

solving: Theory and applications (pp. 229-237). New York, NY: Praeger.
Ausubel, D. P. (1968). 
Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Bammer, G., & Smithson, M. (2008). Understanding uncertainty. Integration Insights, 7, 1-7. Bereiter, C. (1985). Toward a solution of the learning paradox. Review of Educational Research,55(2), 201-226.

Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Getzels, J. W. (1971). Discovery-oriented behavior and the originality  of creative products: A study with artists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 19, 47-52.

de Sousa Santos, B. (2007). From an epistemology of blindness to an epistemology of seeing. In B. de Sousa Santos (Ed.), Cognitive justice in a global world: Prudent knowledges for a decent life (pp. 407-438). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

de Sousa Santos, B. (2009). A non-occidentalist west? Learned ignorance and ecology of 

knowledge. Theory, Culture & Society, 26(7-8), 103-125.
Dede, C. (1996). The evolution of constructivist learning environments: Immersion in 

distributed, virtual worlds. In B. G. Wilson (Ed.), Constructivist learning environments: Case studies in instructional design (pp. 165-175). Westwood, NJ: Educational Technology. 

Duffy, T. M., & Jonassen, D. H. (1992). Constructivism: New implication for instructional technology. In T. M. Duffy & D. H. Jonassen (Eds.), Constructivism and the technology of

instruction: A conversation (pp. 1-16). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Einstein, A., & Infeld, L. (1938). The evolution of physics. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Elder, L., & Paul, R. (2003). Critical thinking: Teaching students how to study and learn (Part 

IV). Journal of Developmental Education, 27(2), 36-37.
Faber, M., Manstetten, R., & Proops, J. (1992). Toward an open future: Ignorance, novelty, and 

evolution. In R. Costanza, B. G. Norton., B. D. Haskell (Eds.), Ecosystem health: New 

goals for environmental management (pp. 72-96). Washington, DC: Island Press.
Firestein, S. (2012). 
Ignorance: How it drives science. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Fodor, J. A. (1980). Fixation of belief and concept acquisition. In M. Piattelli-Palmerini (Ed.),Language and learning: The debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky (pp. 142-149). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Frickel, S., & Vincent, M. B. (2007). Hurricane Katrina, contamination, and the unintended 

organization of ignorance. Technology in Society, 29, 181-188.
Gaudet, J. (2013). It takes two to tango: Knowledge mobilization and ignorance mobilization in
science research and innovation. Prometheus, 31(3), 169-187.

Gauthier, R. L. (2000). The role of questioning: Beyond comprehension’s front door. Reading Horizons, 40(4), 239-52.

Geelan, D. R. (1997). Epistemological anarchy and the many forms of constructivism. Science & Education, 6, 15-28.

Godfrey, K.A. (2001). Teacher questioning techniques, students’ responses and critical thinking (Unpublished master’s thesis). Portland State University, Portland, OR.

Gordon, W. J. J. (1961). Synectics: The development of creative capacity. London, UK: Collier  Books.

Gross, M. (2010). Ignorance and surprise: Science, society and ecological design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Hackerman, N. (1974). Ignorance as the driving force. Science, 183(4128), 905.
Hawking, S., & Mlodinow, L. (2011). 
The grand design. London, UK: Bantam Books.
Herring, M. Y. (2007). 
Fool’s gold: Why the internet is no substitute for a library. London, UK:McFarland & Company. 

Hoffmann, M. H. G. (2003). Peirce’s “diagrammatic reasoning” as a solution of the learning paradox. In G. Brock (Ed.), Process pragmatism: Essays on a quiet philosophical revolution (pp. 121-138). New York, NY: Rodopi.

Huang, X., Hsieh, P., & He, W. (2014). Expertise dissimilarity and creativity: The contingent roles of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(5), 816-830. Jaramillo, N., & Barros, S. (2011). Labyrinth of ignorance. In E. Malewski & N. Jaramillo (Eds.), 

Epistemologies of ignorance in education (pp. 71-85). Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental models. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kaivo-oja, J. R. L., & Lauraeus, I. T. (2018). The VUCA approach as a solution concept to 

corporate foresight challenges and global technological disruption. Foresight, 20(1), 27-49. Keller, J. G., & Keller, D. B. (2011). Socrates, dialogue, and us: Ignorance as learning paradigm. In E. Malewski & N. Jaramillo (Eds.), Epistemologies of ignorance in education (pp.87- 

104). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Kerwin, A. (1993). Not too solid: Medical ignorance. 
Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, 15(2), 166-185.

Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago, University of Chicago. Press.

Lawson, A. E., & Staver, J. R. (1989). Toward a solution of the learning paradox: Emergent 

properties and neurological principles of constructivism. Instructional Science, 18, 169-177. Leyland, A., Rowse, G., & Emerson, L.-M. (2018). Experimental effects of mindfulness inductions on self-regulation: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Emotion. Advance online publication. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000425

Logan, G. (1988). Toward an instance theory of automatization. Psychological Review, 95(4), 492-527.

Lord, C. G., Lepper, M. R., & Preston, E. (1984). Considering the opposite: A corrective strategy for social judgment. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 47(6), 1231-1243. Malewski, E. & Jaramillo, N. (2011). Introduction: Epistemologies of ignorance. In E. Malewski & N. Jaramillo (Eds.), Epistemologies of ignorance in education (pp. 1-30). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.

May, S. (2008). Bilingual/immersion education: What the research tells us. In J. Cummins & N. 

H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education (2nd ed., Vol. Bilingual Education, pp. 19-34). Berlin, Germany: Springer Science+Business Media LLC. 

Michael, M. (2015). Ignorance and the epistemic choreography of method. In M. Gross & L. McGoey (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of ignorance studies (pp. 84-91). London, UK: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Mumford, M. D., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Redmond, M. R. (1994). Problem construction and cognition-applying problem representations in ill-defined domains. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Problem nding, problem solving, and creativity (pp. 3-39). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 

Naisbitt, J. (1982). Megatrends. Ten new directions transforming our lives. New York, NY: Warner Books. 

Nathan, M. J., & Sawyer, K. (2014). Foundations of the learning sciences. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (2nd ed., pp. 21-43). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 

Nielsen, L. (1991). Adolescence: A contemporary view. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. 

Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14-37. 

Norman, K. L. (2017). Cyberpsychology: An introduction to human-computer interaction (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. 

Okuda, S. M., Runco, M. A., & Berger, D. E. (1991). Creativity and the finding and solving of real-world problems. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 9, 145-153. 

Piaget, J. (1964). Development and learning. In R. E. Ripple & V. N. Rockcastle (Eds.), Piaget rediscovered (pp. 7-20). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 

Polanyi, M. (1962). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 

Polanyi, M. (1969). Sense-giving and sense-reading. In M. Grene (Ed.), Knowing and Being: Essays by Michael Polanyi (pp. 181-207). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 

Polya, G. (1957). How to solve it (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Doubleday.
Prawat, R. S. (1999). Dewey, Peirce, and the learning paradox. 
American Educational Research Journal, 36(1), 47-76.

Quinn, M. (2011). Committing (to) ignorance. In E. Malewski & N. Jaramillo (Eds.), 

Epistemologies of ignorance in education (pp. 31-52). Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Ray, T. (2008). Rethinking Michael Polanyi’s realism: From personal knowledge to 

intersubjectively viable communication. Prometheus, 26(3), 241-257. 

Reiter-Palmon, R., Mumford, M. D., Boes, J. O., & Runco, M. A. (1997). Problem construction and creativity: The role of ability, cue consistency, and active processing. Creativity Research Journal, 10(1), 9-23.

Rescher, N. (2009). Ignorance: On the wider implications of de cient knowledge. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. 

Roberts, J. (2013). Organizational ignorance: Towards a managerial perspective on the unknown. Management Learning, 44(3), 215-236. 

Root-Bernstein, R. (2003). Problem generation and innovation. In L. V. Shavinina (Ed.), The international handbook on innovation (pp. 170-179). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 

Roy, D., & Zeckhauser, R. (2015). The anatomy of ignorance. In M. Gross & L. McGoey (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of ignorance studies (pp. 61-73). London, UK: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. 

Runco, M. A. (1994). Conclusions concerning problem finding problem solving and creativity. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Problem finding, problem solving, and creativity (pp. 271-291). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 

Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Posavac, S. S., Vanous, S., Ho, E. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2007). The deautomatization of accessible attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 365-378. 

Schwartz, D. L., & Bransford, J. D. (1998). A time for telling. Cognition and Instruction, 16(4), 475-522. 

Schwartz, D. L., & Martin, T. (2004). Inventing to prepare for future learning: The hidden efficiency of encouraging original student production in statistics instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 22(2), 129-184. 

Scully, J. W., Buttigieg, S. C., Fullard, A., Shaw, D., & Gregson, M. (2013). The role of SHRM in turning tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge: A cross-national study of the UK and Malta. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(12), 2299-2320. 

Seker, H., & Komur, S. (2008). The relationship between critical thinking skills and in-class questioning behaviours of English language teaching students. European Journal of Teacher Education, 31(4), 289-402. 

Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4-13. 

Shackle, G. L. S. (1991). Epistemics and economics: A critique of economic doctrines. New York, NY: Transaction.

Simon, H. A. (1982). Models of bounded rationality: Behavioral economics and business

organization. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Singer, F. M., Ellerton, N., & Cai, J. (2013). Problem-posing research in mathematics education: 

New questions and directions. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 83, 1-7.
Smithson, M. (1985). Toward a social theory of ignorance. 
Journal of the Theory of Social 

Behaviour, 15(2), 151-172.
Smithson, M. (1989). 
Ignorance and uncertainty: Emerging paradigms. New York, NY: Springer Verlag.

Smithson, M. (2009). The many faces and masks of uncertainty. In G. Bammer & M. Smithson 

(Eds.), Uncertainty and risk: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 13-25). Sterling, VA: 

Earthscan, - Earthscan risk in society series.
Standen, P., McKenna, R. & Williams, M. (1998, February). 
Using the ignorance paradigm to teach lifelong learning skills. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Teaching Learning Forum,

The University of Western Australia, Perth, UWA.
Stocking, S. H. (1992). Ignorance-based instruction in higher education. 
Journalism Educator, 47(3), 43-53.

Stocking, S. H., & Holstein, L. W. (1993). Constructing and reconstructing scientific ignorance: Ignorance claims in science and journalism. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization,15(2), 186-210.

Sundbo, J. (2003). Innovation and strategic reflexivity: An evolutionary approach applied to 

services. In L. V. Shavinina (Ed.), The international handbook of innovation (pp. 97-114). 

Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.
Swan, K., & Black, J. B. (1993). Knowledge-based instruction: Teaching problem solving in a 

logo learning environment. Interactive Learning Environments, 3(1), 17-53.
Tuana, N. (2004). Coming to understand: Orgasm and the epistemology of ignorance. 
Hypatia,  19(1), 194-232.

Tuana, N. (2006). The speculum of ignorance: The women’s health movement and epistemologies of ignorance. Hypatia, 21(3), 1-19.

Turkle, S., & Papert, S. (1991). Epistemological pluralism and the revaluation of the concrete. In I. Harel & S. Papert (Eds.), Constructionism (pp. 161-191). Norwood, NJ: The MIT Media Laboratory. 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2005). NFE-MIS Handbook. Developing a sub-national non-formal education management information system. Module 1. Paris, France: UNESCO, Division of Basic Education.

VanLehn, K., Siler, S., Murray, C., Yamauchi, T., & Baggett, W. B. (2003). Why do only some events cause learning during human tutoring? Cognition and Instruction, 21(3), 209-249. 

Virtanen, I. (2013). In search for a theoretically firmer epistemological foundation for the relationship between tacit and explicit knowledge. The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 11(2), 118-126. 

von Glasersfeld, E. (2001). Scheme theory as a key to the learning paradox. In A. Tryphon & J. Voneche (Eds.), Working with Piaget: Essays in honour of Barbel Inhelder (pp. 141-148). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. 

Walker, W. E., Harremoes, P., Rotmans, J., Van der sluijs, J. P., Van asselt, M. B. A., Janssen, P., & Krayer von krauss, M. P. (2003). Defining uncertainty: A conceptual basis for uncertainty management in model-based decision support. Integrated Assessment, 4(1), 5-17. 

Witte, M. H., Kerwin, A., & Witte, C. L. (1998). Curriclulum on medical and other ignorance: Shifting paradigms on learning and discovery. In M. J. Intons-Peterson & D. L. Best (Eds.), Memory distortions and their prevention (pp. 125-156). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 

Witte, M. H., Kerwin, A., Witte, C. L., & Scadron, A. (1989). A curriculum on medical ignorance. Medical Education, 23, 24-29. 

Whitte, M. H. & Witte, C. L. (1995). Epilogue: Beyond the sphere of knowledge in lymphology. In R. Ryan & P. S. Mortimer (Eds.), Cutaneous lymphatic system: Clinics in Dermatology, 13, 511. 

Xie, J., & Masingila, J. O. (2017). Examining interactions between problem posing and problem solving with prospective primary teachers: A case of using fractions. Educ Stud Math, 96, 101-118. 

Yan, B., & Arlin, P. (1999). Dialectical thinking: Implications for creativity thinking. In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Creativity. I. (pp. 547- 552). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 

Young, M. (2013). Overcoming the crisis in curriculum theory: A knowledge-based approach. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45(2), 101-118.