第六十五輯.第三期 - 2019-09-30

研究紀要/學術評論:論「通過/不通過制」 在大學教育的誤用與重塑

Research Notes/Scholarly Commentaries:On the Misuse and Reestablishment of the Pass/Fail Grading System in University Education

作 者:
林俊儒、林昆翰、何萬順 / Jun-Ru Lin, Kun-Han Lin, One-Soon Her
關鍵字:
成績平均積點、通過/不通過制、零學分課程、學習評量、學習規劃 / grade point average, pass/fail, zero-credit course, grading evaluation, learning planning
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
本文首先釐清「通過/不通過制」(Pass/Fail,簡稱P/F制)的學習評量方 式與「百分制」和「等第制」之異同,以及P/F制與成績平均積點(grade point average,簡稱GPA)的關係,並且呈現P/F制在臺灣高等教育發展上與零學分課 程之間的緊密連結。接著,從學分與授課的對應關係,說明「服務學習」、「教 學實務與實習」與「外語能力檢定」此三種零學分課程如何誤用P/F制,並指出 其中的可能弊端以及背後的政策思維。從教育政策的角度觀察,P/F制與其他評 量方式各有利弊得失。在提示P/F制的適用課程、對象與階段的理論基礎上,本 文主張多元的學習規劃設計,建議大學可從多元的學習評量方式著手,重塑教學 管理的方向,期能更加符合適才適所的教育精神。
In this paper, we argue for the misuse of pass/fail grading system (P/F) in Taiwan’s zero-credit courses and depict the potential drawbacks and the thinking behind such policies. We first clarify the similarities and differences between P/F and other grading systems and explain the relationship between P/F and grade point average (GPA). We then reveal the close connection between P/F and the development of zero-credit courses in Taiwan’s university education. Based on the correspondence between credits and credit hours, we further demonstrate how P/F is seriously misused in the zero-credit courses of “service-learning”, “internship and practice of teaching”, and “graduation requirement of foreign language proficiency” and point out their possible drawbacks and the thinking behind such policies. From the perspective of education policies, P/ F, like other grading systems, has its advantages and disadvantages. Building on the discussion of the theoretical foundation of P/F’s suitability and applicability in terms of courses, participants, and learning phases, we propose a diversified approach towards designing learning planning. We thus further suggest that by considering a diversified range of grading possibilities, universities can reshape the direction of course management to better facilitate students’ individual educational goals.

何萬順、周祝瑛、蘇紹雯、蔣侃學、陳郁萱(2013)。我國大學英語畢業門檻政策之檢 討。教育政策論壇,16(3),1-30

[Her, O.-S., Chou, C.-I., Su, S.-W., Chiang, K.-H., & Chen, Y.-H. (2013). A critical review of the English benchmark policy for graduation in Taiwan’s universities. Educational Policy Forum, 16(3), 1-30.]

何萬順、林俊儒(2017)。大學學業退學制度的批判與反思。教育研究集刊,63(3), 77-106

[Her, O.-S., & Lin, J.-R. (2017). A critical review of the policies of academic dismissal from university. Bulletin of Educational Research, 63(3), 75-106.]

何萬順、林俊儒(2018)。大學自治還是教育外包?簡評台北高等行政法院106年度訴字第169號政大英語畢業門檻之判決。全國律師,2018(12),105-114

[Her, O.-S., & Lin, J.-R. (2018). University autonomy or education outsourcing? Remarks on Taipei High Administrative Court’s 2017 Ruling 169 on NCCU’s English exit examination. Taiwan Bar Journal, 2018(12), 105-114.]

何萬順、廖元豪、蔣侃學(2014)。論現行大學英語畢業門檻的適法性以政大法規為實例的論證。政大法學評論,1391-64

[Her, O.-S.. Liao, Y.-H.. & Chiang, K.-H. (2014). On the legality of Taiwan universities’ English graduation benchmark enforcement rules: A case study of National Chengchi University. Chengchi Law Review, 139, 1-64.]

汪耀文(2014)。學生評量成績管理規定適法性之初探以地方政府國民中小學生成績評量補充規定與臺北地方法院200633194年度易字第1533號刑事判決的案件事實為中心。學校行政雙月刊,94174-191

[Wang, Y.-W. (2014). A preliminary discussion of the legality of student achievement assessment regulations – Focused on student achievement assessment supplementary regulations of junior high schools and elementary schools in local governments and Yi Zi No.1533 criminal case on March 31, 2006 in Taipei District Court. School Administrators Research Bimonthly, 94, 174-191.]

國立臺灣師範大學(2013)。NTNU成績等第制。取自http://iweb.ntnu.edu.tw/aa/gpaweb/ index.html

[National Taiwan Normal University. (2013). NTNU letter grade system. Retrieved from http:// iweb.ntnu.edu.tw/aa/gpaweb/index.html]

符碧真(2011)。ABC之間:等第評量制度。取自http://ctld.ntu.edu.tw/fd/teaching_ resource/page1-1_detail.php?bgid=&gid=7&nid=122

[Fu, B.-Z. (2011). Between ABC: Letter grade system. Retrieved from http://ctld.ntu.edu.tw/fd/ teaching_resource/page1-1_detail.php?bgid=&gid=7&nid=122]

彭森明(2010)。大學生學習成果評量:理論、實務與應用。臺北市:高教評鑑中心。

[Peng, M.-S. (2010). Assessing College Student Learning Outcomes: Theory, Practices and Applications. Taipei, Taiwan: Higher Education Evaluation & Accreditation Council of Taiwan.] 

黃玉(2001)。服務學習—公民教育的具體實踐。人文及社會學科教學通訊,12(3),1-42

[Huang, Y. (2001). Service learning - Specific practice of civic education. Newsletter for Teaching the Humanities and Social Sciences, 12(3), 1-42.]

詹盛如(2017)。大學生學習評量政策:大學該有的角色?。評鑑雙月刊,6830-33

[Zhan, S.-R. (2017). College students’ learning assessment policy: The role of the university. Evaluation Bimonthly, 68, 30-33.]

蕭佳純(2014)。評量機制之初探:百分制與等第制。載於陳恒安(主編),課的解析(頁108-116)。臺南市:成功大學。

[Xiao, J.-C. (2014). A Preliminary study of grading systems: Numerical system and letter system. In H.-A. Cheng (Ed.), Analysis of courses (pp. 108-116). Tainan, Taiwan: Cheng Kung University.]

薛荷玉(201046日)。別再分分計較 台大清大改打ABC「等第制」。聯合報。取https://bluestapler.pixnet.net/blog/post/26031730-%5B聯合%5D別再分分計較-台大清大改打abc「等第制」

[Xue, H.-Y. (2011, April 6). Don’t take grades seriously, NTU and NTUH changed to letter grades. Retrieved from https://bluestapler.pixnet.net/blog/post/26031730-%5B聯合%5D再分分計較-台大清大改打abc「等第制」]

Airasian, P. (1994). Classroom assessment. New York, NY: Harcourt.

Bloodgood, R., Short, J., & Jackson, J. (2009). A change to pass/fail grading in the first two years at one medical school results in improved psychological well-Being. Academic Medicine,84(5), 655-662.

Cresswell, M. J. (1986). Examination grade: How many should there be? British Educational Research Journal, 12(1), 37-54.

Elikai, F., & Schuhmann, P. (2010). An examination of the impact of grading policies on student’s achievement. Issues in Accounting Education, 25(4), 677-693.

Gold, R., Reilly, A., Silberman, R., & Lehr, R. (1971). Academic achievement declines under Pass-Fail Grading. The Journal of Experiential Education, 39(3), 17-21.

Harvard University. (n.d.). Student handbook. Retrieved from https://projects.iq.harvard.edu/files/studenthandbookpdf/files/2017-18-fas-student-handbook.pdf?m=1527697611

Karlins, K., Kaplan, M., & Stuart, W. (1969). Academic attitudes and performance as a function of deferential grading systems. The Journal of Experimental Education, 37(3), 38-50. 

Melrose, S. (2017). Pass/fail and discretionary grading: A snapshot of their influences on learning. Open Journal of Nursing, 7, 185-192.

Miller, B. M., Kalet, A., Vanwoerkom, R. C., Zorko, N., & Halsey, J. (2009). Can a pass/fail grading system adequately reflect student progress. Virtual Mentor, 1(11), 854-851.

Spring, L., Robillard, D., Gehlbach, L., & Simas, T. (2011). Impact of pass/fail grading on medical student’ well-being and academic outcomes. Medical Education, 45, 867-877.

Walvoord, B., & Anderson, V. (2011). Effective grading: A tool for learning and assessment in college. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

White, C. B., & Fantone, J. C. (2009). Pass-fail grading: Laying the foundation of self-regulated learning. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 15, 469-477.

Wittich, V. B. (1972). The impact of the pass-fail system upon achievement of college students.The Journal of Higher Education, 43(6), 499-508.

Yorke, M. (2008). Grading student achievement in higher education: Signals and shortcomingsNew York, NY: Routledge.