第六十五輯.第四期 - 2019-12-31

十九世紀首位美籍傳教士裨治文在華教育事業與美國教育制度的引介

The Educational Enterprise of the First American Missionary E. J. Bridgman and His Introduction of American Educational System in the Nineteenth Century China

作 者:
周愚文 / Yu-Wen Chou
關鍵字:
美國教育制度、教育移轉、教會學校、裨治文 / American education system, mission schools, educational transfer, E. C. Bridgman
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
本文旨在探討十九世紀首位來華美籍傳教士裨治文的教育事業,及其對引介 美國教育制度的影響。本文採歷史研究法,經考證及分析一手中、英文史料後 發現,裨治文在華31年間,除直接布道外,還藉翻譯聖經、出版書籍、發行報刊 及設立學校來傳福音。他所撰《美理哥合省國志略》是首部美人介紹美國及其教 育制度之作,廣為時人鈔引。另他在穗、澳、港、滬設立學塾,教育貧童,並倡 「設學輔教」策略,起初未獲所屬美部會支持,但仍以己力募款興學。裨夫人也 積極在穗、滬、京設立女塾,興學輔教。直到他病逝後,1877年在華各差會才改 變態度,改支持興辦教育事業。之後,美部會擴展華北教育事業,更建立教會學 校系統,故裨治文早期引介美國教育制度的先驅角色實不可忽視。
The aim of this article is to explore Rev. E. J. Bridgman and his influence of introducing American educational system in the nineteenth century China, who was the first American protestant missionary to China in 1830. This study used historical method and primary sources. During his thirty-one year’s service in China, not only he preached the gospel directly, but also translated Scriptures, published an influential book, A Brief Account of the United Provinces of American, and journal to introduce USA and her educational system. Besides, he established a few primary schools at Canton, Macao, Hong Kong and Shanghai for poor children for evangelism and training native assistants. He also initiated a strategy “education as means to evangelism”, which was not recognized by the American Board in the beginning until the resolution made by The Shanghai Missionary Conference 1877. As the pioneer and founder for the missionary enterprise and the establishment of its mission school system of American Board later, and introducing American educational system, their Mr. Bridgman’s educational efforts should not be forgotten.

王立新(1997)。美國傳教士與晚清中國現代化。天津市:天津人民。
[Wang, L.-X. (1997). American missionaries and China modernization in late Ch’ing. Tianjinm, China: Tiajin People.] 

王錫祺(編)(1964)。小方壺齋輿地叢鈔補編再補編。臺北市:廣文。(原著出版於1897)

[Wang, S.-C. (Ed.). (1964). A collection of geographic literature of small square pot hall supplement II & III. Taipei, Taiwan: Kuang-wen. (Original work published 1897)]

周愚文(2018)。晚清中國近代教育制度西化的研究方向新探。教育論叢,613-38

[Chou, Y.-W. (2018). A new direction for the study of westernization of educational system in late Ch’ing China. Educational Discourse, 6, 13-38.] 

周愚文(2019)。晚清甲午以前在華中外人士對於美國教育的介紹。教育研究集刊,65(1),79-122

[Chou, Y.-W. (2019). The introduction of American education by missionaries and Chinese officials and commoners in late Ch’ing China before 1894. Bulletin of Educational Research, 65(1), 79-122.] 

周愚文(已接受)。晚清美部會華北教會學校系統的形成。教育科學研究期刊

[Chou, Y.-W. (accepted). The formation of mission school system of the A.B.C.F.M. in north China in late Ch’ing. Journal of Research in Educational Sciences.] 

岡本監輔(1962)。美國記。載於王錫祺(編),小方壺齋輿地叢鈔(頁10019-10036)。臺北市:廣文。(原著出版於1891)

[Seisuke, O. (1962). United states. In S.-C. Wang (Ed.), A collection of geographic literature of small square pot hall supplement II & III (pp. 10019-10036). Taipei, Taiwan: Kuang-wen. (Original work published 1891)] 

林美玫(2011)。婦女與差傳:19世紀美國聖公會女傳教士在華差傳研究。北京市:社 會科學文獻。

[Lin, M.-M. (2011). Women in missiology: The study of the episcopal women missionaries and their endeavors in China (1835-1900). Beijing, China: Social Science Academic Press.] 

林美玫(2015)。信心行傳:中國內地會在華差傳探析(1865-1926)。北京市:社會科 學文獻。 

[Lin, M.-M. (2015). The acts in faith: The study of China inland mission and its missionary endeavors in China (1865-1926). Beijing, China: Social Science Academic Press.] 

徐繼畬(1968)。瀛寰志略。臺北市:華文。(原著出版於1850)
[Hsu, J.-Y. (1968). A short account of maritime circuit. Taipei, Taiwan: Hwa-wen. (Original work published 1850)]

高理文(1838)。美理哥合省國志略。新嘉坡:堅夏書院。
[Bridgman, E. C. (1838). Brief account of United States of American. Singapore: Ken-Shia College.]

高理文(1844)。亞墨理格合眾國志略。香港:不詳。
[Bridgman, E. C. (1844). Brief account of united states of American. Hong Kong, China: (n.p.).]

高理文(1964)。美理哥國志略。載於王錫祺(編),小方壺齋輿地叢鈔補編再補編臺北市:廣文。(原著出版於1897)

[Bridgman, E. C. (1964). Brief account of united states of American. In S.-C. Wang (Ed.), collection of geographic literature of small square pot hall supplement II & III. Taipei, Taiwan: Kuang-wen. (Original work published 1897)]

張施娟(2010)。裨治文與早期中美文化交流。杭州市:浙江大學出版社。

[Zhang, S.-J. (2010). E. C. Bridgman and early sino-american cultural exchange. Hangzhou, China: Zhejiang University Press.] 

張偉保、溫如嘉(2018)。澳門馬禮遜學堂的創辦與歷史地位。澳門研究,91(4), 49-57

[Cheung, W.-P., & Wen, R. (2018). The establishment of morrision school in Macau and its historical status. Journal of Macau Studies, 91(4), 49-57.] 

梁廷(1997)。海國四說。北京市:中華書局。(原著出版於1846)
[Liang, T.-N. (1997). Four essays on foreign countries. Beijing, China: Zhonghua Bookstore. (Original work published 1846)] 

賴德烈(2009)。基督教在華傳教史。香港:道風書社。

[Latourrtte. K. S. (2009). A history if Christian missions in China. Hong Kong, China: Logos and Pneuma Press.]

裨治文(1861)。大美聯邦志略。上海市:墨海書館。
[Bridgman, E. C. (1861). United states, history. Shanghai, China: The London Missionary Society Press.]

齊思和等(1964)。籌辦夷務始末(道光朝)。北京市:中華書局。
[Chi, S.-H. et al. (1960). The whole story of managing foreign affairs during the daoguang period. Beijing, China: Zhonghua Bookstore.] 魏源(2011)。海國圖志。長沙市:嶽麓書社。(原著出版於1852)

[Wei, Y. (2011). An illustrated treatise on the maritime kingdoms. Ch’angsha, China: Yuelu. (Original work published 1852)] 

顧長聲(1995)。傳教士與近代中國。上海市:上海人民。

[Gu, C.-S. (1995). Missionaries and modern China. Shanghai, China: Shanghai People.] 

顧長聲(2005)。從馬禮遜到司徒雷登:來華新教傳教士評傳。上海市:上海書店。

[Gu, C.-S. (2005). From Robert Morrison to John Leighton Stuart: Biography of protestant missionaries in China. Shanghai, China: Shanghai Bookstore.] 

蘇精(2006)。上帝的人馬:十九世紀在華傳教士的作為。香港:基督教中國宗教文化研究社。

[Su, C. (2006). Under god’s command: Papers on early protestant missionaries in China. Hong Kong, China: Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religious and Culture. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1861). Fifty-first annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: The Press of T. R. Marvin & son.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1862). Fifty-second annual report of  American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: The Press of T. R. Marvin & son.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1863). Fifty-third annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: The Press of T. R. Marvitn & son.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1864). Fifty-fourth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: The Press of T. R. Marvin & son.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1866). Fifty-sixth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: The Press of T. R. Marvin & son.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1867). Fifty-seventh annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: The Press of T. R. Marvin & son.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1869). Fifty-ninth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1870). Sixtieth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1871). Sixty-first annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1872). Sixty-second annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1873). Sixty-third annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1874). Sixty-fourth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1875). Sixty-fifth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1876). Sixty-sixth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1877). Sixty-seventh annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1878). Sixty-eighth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1879). Sixty-ninth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1880). Seventieth annual report of board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1881). Seventy- rst annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1882). Seventy-second annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1883). Seventy-third annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Stanley of Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1884). Seventy-forth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Stanley of Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1885). Seventy- fth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Stanley of Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1886). Seventy-sixth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Stanley of Usher.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1887). Seventy-seventh annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Stanley of Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1888). Seventy-eightieth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Stanley of Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1889). Seventy-ninth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Stanley of Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1890). Eightieth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1891). Eighty-first annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1892). Eighty-second annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1893). Eighty-third annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1894). Eighty-fourth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1895). Eighty-fifth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel Usher. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1896). Eighty-sixth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel  Usher.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1897). Eighty-seventh annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel Usher.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1898). Eighty-eightieth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel Usher.

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. (1899). Eighty-nineth annual report of American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Boston, MA: Press of Samuel Usher.

Blodget, H. (1872a). The late mrs. E. C. Bridgman. The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal, 4, 261-263.

Blodget, H. (1872b). The late mrs. E. C. Bridgman (concluded). The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal, 4, 298-302.

Bridgman, E. C. (1831). Extracts from a letter of Mr. Bridgman. The Missionary Herald, Aug.243-245.

Bridgman, E. C. (1835). Education among the Chinese. The Chinese Repository, 4(1), 1-10. Bridgman, E. C. (1836a). Suggestions for to the formation of the medical missionary society. The Chinese Repository, 5(8), 371-373.

Bridgman, E. C. (1836b). Proceedings relative to the formation of the morrison education society. The Chinese Repository, 5(8), 373-381.

Bridgman, E. C. (1837a). Preparation of works for press-printing. The Missionary Herald, 33(6), 262-263.

Bridgman, E. C. (1837b). Mission to China. The Missionary Herald, 33(1), 15-16.
Bridgman, E. C. (1838a). Mission to China. 
The Missionary Herald, 34(1), 9.
Bridgman, E. C. (1838b). Employments and labors of the Missionaries. 
The Missionary Herald, 34(5), 169.

Bridgman, E. C. (1840a). Notices respecting the several departments of labor. The Missionary Herald, 36(3), 11.

Bridgman, E. C. (1840b). Labor for the Chinese- Criminal nature of the opium trade. The Missionary Herald, 36(8), 319-320.

Bridgman, E. C. (1841). The third annual report of the morrison education society. The Chinese Repository, 10(10), 564-587.

Bridgman, E. C. (1842a). Notices of the medical missionary society in China and the morrison education society in China. The Chinese Repository, 6(6), 335-340.

Bridgman, E. C. (1842b). Letter from Bridgman. The Missionary Herald, 37(3), 100-101. 

Bridgman, E. C. (1843a). Letter from Mr. Bridgman. The Missionary Herald, 39(3), 119-120. 

Bridgman, E. C. (1843b). The Chinese hither neglected- The work to be done. The Missionary Herald, 39(2), 54-55.

Bridgman, E. C. (1843c). A letter from Mr. Bridgman. The Missionary Herald, 39(1), 32. 

Bridgman, E. C. (1844). The sixth annual report of the morrison education society. The Chinese Repository, 12(12), 619-641.

Bridgman, E. C. (1845). The seventh annual report of the morrison education society. The Chinese Repository, 10(1), 465-471.

Bridgman, E. C. (1846). Removal from Hong Kong to China. The Missionary Herald, 42(2), 49-50.

Bridgman, E. C. (1850). Survey of the missions of board. The Missionary Herald, 46(1), 11. Bridgman, E. J. G. (1853). Daughters of China, Sketches of domestic life in the celestial empireNew York, NY: Robert Carter & Brothers.

Bridgman, E. J. G. (1864). The life and labors of Elijah Coleman Bridgman. New York, NY: Anson D. F. Randolph.

Broomhall, M. (Ed.). (1907). The Chinese empire. A general missionary survey. London, UK: Morgan & Scott.

Brown, S. R. (1843). Fifth annual report of the morrison education society for the year ending Oct. 1st 1843. The Chinese Repository, 12(12), 617-630.

Burton, M. E. (1911). The education of women in China. New York, NY: Fleming H. Revell. (Original work published 1885)

Drake, F. W. (1985). Protestant geography in China: E. C. Bridgman’s portrayal of the west. In S. W. Barnett & J. K. Fairbank (Eds.), Christianity in China: Early protestant missionary writings (pp. 89-106). Cambridge, CA: Harvard University Press.

Editor. (1835). Intelligence. The Missionary Herald, 31(4), 155.
Editor. (1872). Shanghai female school society: Report general statement for recent. 
The North- China Herald and Supreme Court & Consular Gazette, Feb. 29, 159-161.

Editor. (1877). The Shanghai missionary conference. The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal, 8(3), 239-250.

Editor. (1880). The Bridgman school. Life and Light for Woman, 10(1), 65-69.

Editor. (1887). Missionary education of Chinese in Shanghai. The North-China Herald and Supreme Court & Consular Gazette, Oct. 19, 434-435.

Editor. (1940). Bridgman school’s anniversary. The North-China Herald and Supreme Court & Consular Gazette, Nov. 13, 253.

Editorial Committee. (Ed.). (1890). Records of the general conference of the protestant missions in China. Shanghai, China: The American Presbyterian Press.

Fryer, J. (Ed.). (1895). Educational directory for China. An account of the various schools and colleges connected with protestant missions. Shanghai, China: The American Presbyterian Mission Press.

Gee, N. G. (Ed.). (1905). Educational directory for China. An account of the various schools and colleges connected with protestant missions. Shanghai, China: the Educational Association of China.

Gregg, A. H. (1946). China and educational autonomy. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Happer, A. P. (1884). A retrospect. The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal, 11(1), 469-475.

Lazich, M. C. (2000). E. C. Bridgman (1801-1860), America’s rst missionary to China. New York, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.

Lutz, J. G. (1971). 

國立臺灣師範大學教育學系教育研究集刊 Department of Education, National Taiwan Normal University

10610 臺北市大安區和平東路一段162號 / No.162, Sec. 1, Heping E. Rd., Da'an Dist., Taipei City 106, Taiwan (R.O.C.)

+886-2-77343892 +886-2-77343878