第六十六輯.第一期 - 2020-03-31

自主性作為教育目的之哲學省察: 倫敦路線的相關論辯

Philosophical Reflections on Autonomy as an Educational Aim: Some Debates on London Line

作 者:
簡成熙 / Cheng-Hsi Chien
關鍵字:
公民教育、個人自主、理性自主、教育目的 / civic education, personal autonomy, rational autonomy, aims of education
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
R. S. Peters、R. F. Dearden、R. Barrow、J. White等在1960年代,開創倫敦學 派教育理念,強調個人建立在自主性下的理性反思,規劃其美好生活的能力,是 教育目的之所在。本文首先交代其理念概要,第二節敘述1980年代以後,其他學 者的質疑。如C. M. Stone挑戰Dearden的看法,指其只重視理性,忽略了感性、 欲求及其他層面。S. E. Cuypers認為,自主的過程其實是表現在自我認同、自我 評估之上,提出關懷才是教育之重點。第三節主要介紹E. Callan,他在自由主義 的立場上,較倫敦路線更為強調興趣導向的課程,並將社群主義之理念融入自主 性概念中。第四節則提出倫敦路線立場學者們的回應。筆者最後的結論是,當年 倫敦路線自主性的主張,容或有過於重視理性的限制,不過,諸反對者並未能全 盤否定自主性的訴求,自主性也能吸納情感、意願、認同等因子。易言之,重構 後的自主性概念仍不失為臺灣當下民主氛圍中應有的核心教育目的。
Based on the liberal tradition of the age of Enlightenment, the scholars of London Line, including R. S. Peters, R. F. Dearden, among others, had advocated autonomy as an educational aim since the 1960s. The core claims of London Line are provided in the first section. The second section discusses numerous criticisms, which had risen since the 1980s, including C. M. Stone’s and S. E. Cuypers’ criticisms to autonomy as educational aim. The third section expresses the perspectives of E. Callan, who integrated the spirit of communitarianism to the liberal concepts of autonomy, and put much more emphasis on interest-oriented curriculum than White did. Despite some criticisms, London Line scholars still defended autonomy as an aim of education, and this is discussed in the fourth section. Finally, the author concludes that rationality might be overvalued with regard to the role autonomy had played in London Line. Nevertheless, we can reconstruct the concept of autonomy as it encompasses emotion,volition, recognition, etc. In general, the idea of reconstructed autonomy should be the core educational aim embodied in Taiwanese democratic spirit nowadays.

但昭偉(2017)。社會倫理關懷。新北市:國立空中大學。
[Dan, J.-W. (2017). Social philosophy and caring. New Taipei, Taiwan: National Open University.] 

李奉儒(1997)。自由與理性的正反論辯:道德自律與道德教育的探究。載於簡成熙(主編),哲學和教育:20世紀末的教育哲學(頁153-173)。高雄市:復文。 

[Lee, F.-J. (1997). The antinomy of freedom and reason: A study on moral autonomy and moral education. In C.-H. Chien (Ed.), Philosophy of education: Educational philosophy in the late 20th century (pp. 153-173). Kaohsiung, Taiwan: Fu Wen.] 

林逢祺(1992)。教育哲學的創造思想家— 皮德思。載於劉焜輝(主編),人類航路的燈塔:當代教育思想家(頁110-150)。臺北市:正中書局。

[Lin, F.-C. (1992). The creative thinker of philosophy of education, R. S. Peters. In K.-H. Liu (Ed.), The lighthouse for humanity: Contemporary thinkers on education (pp. 110-150). Taipei, Taiwan: Chen Chung Book.]

溫明麗(1997)。批判性思考教學— 哲學之旅。臺北市:師大書苑。
[Wen, S. M. L. (1997). Teaching of critical thinking: Journey of philosophy. Taipei, Taiwan: Lucky Bookstore.]  

簡成熙(2019a)。彼得斯對教育內在性目的之論證及其相關評析。教育學術月刊,13-17

[Chien, C.-H. (2019a). R. S. Peters’ demonstrations and comments on educational intrinsic purpose. Education Research Monthly, 1, 3-17.]

簡成熙(2019b)。J. WhiteR. S. Peters內在教育目的之修正及其證成。教育學刊,521-33

[Chien, C.-H. (2019b). John White’s revision and restatement of Richard Stanely Peters’ intrinsic aims of education. Education Review, 52, 1-33.]

Peters, R. S. (2017). 倫理學與教育(簡成熙,譯)。臺北市:聯經。(原著出版於1966

[Peters, R. S. (2017). Ethics and education (C.-H. Chien, Trans.). Taipei, Taiwan: Linking. (Original work published 1966)]

Allen, R. T. (1982). Rational autonomy: The destruction of freedom. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 16(2), 199-207.

Barrow, R. (1975). Moral philosophy of education. London, UK: George Allen & Unwin. 

Barrow, R. (1976). Common sense and education. London, UK: Routledge.

Callan, E. (1988). Autonomy and schooling. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Callan, E. (1994). Autonomy and alienation. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 28(1), 35-53. 

Clement, C. (1996). Care, autonomy and justice: Feminism and ethic of care. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Cuypers, S. E. (1992). Is personal autonomy first principle of education? Journal of Philosophy of Education, 26(1), 5-17. 

Dearden, R. F. (1968). The philosophy of primary education. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 

Dearden, R. F. (1972). Autonomy and education. In R. F. Dearden, P. H. Hirst, & R. S. Peters (Eds.), Education and the development of reason (pp. 448-465). London, UK: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 

Dearden, R. F. (1975). Autonomy as an educational ideal. In S. C. Brown (Ed.), Philosophers discuss education (pp. 3-18). London, UK: The Macmillan Press. 

Dearden, R. F. (1990). Review of autonomy and schooling. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 24(1), 127-131. 

Dworkin, G. (1988). The theory and practice of autonomy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 

Frankfurt, H. (1988). The importance of what we care about: Philosophical essays. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 

Galston, W. A. (1991). Liberal purposes: Goods, virtues, and diversity in the liberal state. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 

Gutmann, A. (1987). Democratic education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hirst, P. H. (1965). Liberal education and the nature of knowledge. In R. D. Archambault (Ed.), Philosophical analysis and education (pp. 113-138 ). London, UK: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Lee, J.-H., & Wring, C. (1993). Rational autonomy, morality and education? Journal of Philosophy of Education, 27(1), 69-78.

Norman, R. (1994). “I did it my way”: Some thoughts of autonomy. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 28(1), 25-34.

Morgan, J. (1996). A defense of autonomy as an educational ideal. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 30(2), 239-252.

Marshall, J. D. (1996). Michel Foucault: Personal autonomy and education. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

Oppenheim, F. (1961). Dimensions of freedom. New York, NY: St Martin’s Press. 

Peters, R. S. (1966). Ethics and education. London, UK: George Allen & Unwin.

Peters, R. S. (1973). Freedom and the development of free man. In J. F. Doyle (Ed.), Educational judgements: Papers in the philosophy of education (pp. 119-142). London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Peters, R. S. (1974). Psychology and Ethical development. London, UK: George Allen & Unwin.

Stone, C. M. (1990). Autonomy, emotion and desires: Some problems concerning R. F. Dearden’s account of autonomy. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 24(2), 271-283. 

Strike, K. A. (1999). Liberalism, citizenship and the private interest in schooling. In R. Marples (Ed.), The aims of education (pp. 50-60). London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Steutel, J., & Spiecker, B. (1999). Liberalism, and critical thinking: O the relation between a political ideal and an aim of education. In R. Marples (Ed.), The aims of education (pp. 61-73). London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Taylor, R. M. (2017). Education for Autonomy and open-mindedness in diverse societies. Educational Philosophy and Education, 49(14), 1338-1350.

Telfer, E. (1975). Autonomy as an educational ideal. In S. C. Brown (Ed), Philosophers discuss education (pp. 19-35). London, UK: The Macmillan Press.

Walker, J. C. (1999). Self-determination as an educational aim. In R. Marples (Ed), The aims of education (pp. 112-123). London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

White, J. (1973). Towards a compulsory curriculum. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

White, J. (1982). The aims of education restated. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

White, J. (1991). Education and the good life: Autonomy, altruism and the National curriculumNew York, NY: Teachers College Press.

White, J. (2003). Five critical stands towards liberal philosophy of education in Britain. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 37(1), 147-184. doi:10.1111/1467-9752.3701010

Wringe, C. (1988). Understanding educational aims. London, UK: Unwin Hyman.
Wringe, C. (1997). In defense of rational autonomy as an educational goal. In D. Bridges (Ed.), 
Education, autonomy and democratic citizenship (pp. 115-126). London, UK: Routledge.