第六十八輯.第四期(Open Access) - 2022-12-30


Listening to Students’ Voices: Curriculum Interpretations of Fifth-grade Students in an Elementary School in South China

作 者:
詹雨欣、宋明娟 / Yuxin Zhan, Min-Chuan Sung
低社經地位背景學生、洞察、限制、課程詮釋、學生的聲音 / low socioeconomic status students, penetration, limitation, curriculum interpretation, student voice
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 全文下載
Research on students’ curriculum interpretations reveals issues regarding understanding students, which serve as a prerequisite for discussing educational theory and practice. This qualitative research investigates the issue ignored in previous studies – the curriculum interpretations of elementary school students from working class families. The students of a fifth-grade class in an elementary school in south China were invited as participants. Firstly, the findings indicate that students’ practical orientation toward curriculum were manifested in viewing curriculum as useful for taking examinations, finding future jobs, and being applicable to daily life. School subjects were also classified according to the teacher’s authority and abilities for teaching. Secondly, the group of boys did not believe that diploma has its function for educational exchange as strongly as the conformists do. Internal and external limitations have been argued to cause their “partial penetration”. Moreover, students’ curriculum interpretations reflect how they perceive their living situation. The students from working class families were not able to deeply penetrate the structure of social class due to the limitation caused by the school ideology which regards the examination as a mechanism for social equality. The final part of the article proposed that education could serve for promoting humanity in that students with low socioeconomic status could overcome the social class barriers.


[Weng, D. (2000). Higher education expansion and graduate employment. Higher Education Exploration, 4, 30-33.]


[Weng, D. (2005). The impacts of SES on higher education opportunity and graduate employment in China. Peking

  University Education Review, 3, 58-63.]


[Tian, F. (2015). Higher education system and elites reproduction: The survey data of 12 universities and colleges. Journal

  of Social Development, 1, 37-63+243-244.]



[Pai, Y.-C. (2008). Students’ interpretations of curriculum: Taipei Municipal Chien Kuo High School as an example

  [Unpublished master’s thesis]. National Taiwan Normal University.]


[Mao, C.-J. (2015). An inquiry into students’ experience of curricula: Literature and issues and examples. Education

  Research Monthly, 8, 93-106.]


[Lee, C.-K., & Wong, H.-W. (1996). Curriculum: Paradigms, orientations and design. The Chinese University of Hong

  Kong Press.]


[Li, T. (2014). Underclass of society and education— The truth of underclass’s education in an agricultural country of

  western China [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Northeast Normal University.]


[Li, T. (2016). Juveniles from lower class: A microsocial research on class reproduction in rural school in west China.

  Journal of Social Sciences, 1, 82-92.]

林秀珍(2007)。經驗與教育探微—杜威(J. Dewey)教育哲學之詮釋。師大書苑。

[Lin, S.-J. (2007). An exploration of experience and education— Interpretations of J. Dewey’s philosophy of education.

  Lucky Bookstore.]

周揚、謝宇(2020)。從大學到菁英大學:高等教育擴張下的異質性收入回報與社會歸 類機制。教育研究,5,


[Zhou, Y., & Xie, Y. (2020). From universities to elite universities: Heterogeneous returns to higher education and the

  sorting mechanism in the context of higher education expansion in China. Educational Research, 5, 86-98.]


[Chou, H.-F. (2005). Bourdieu on school education and cultural reproduction. Psychological.]

周瀟(2011)。反學校文化與階級再生產:「小子」與「子弟」之比較。社會,5,70- 92。

[Zhou, X. (2011). Counter-school culture: A comparative study of “Lads” and “Zidi”. Chinese Journal of Sociology, 5, 70-



[Shi, L. (1994). Analysis on the definition of curriculum. Education Review, 3, 44-47.]

洪豔(2009)。我國「就業難」與「用工荒」現象並存的原因探究—以經濟和社會角 度為研究點。知識經濟,


[Hong, Y. (2009). An investigation into the reasons for the coexistence of “employment difficulties” and “labor shortage”

  in China: An economic and social perspective. Knowledge Economy, 10, 61-62.]


[Chen, X. (2002). Qualitative research in social sciences. Wu-Nan Book.]


  育研究季刊,23(1),71-111。https://doi.org/10.6151/ CERQ.2015.2301.03

[Chen, C.-P., Cheng, P.-W., Lai, H.-M., & Hsiao, H.-C. (2015). Exploring the relationship between certifications and

  wages among university graduate students: A propensity scorematched analysis. Contemporary Educational Research

  Quarterly, 23(1), 71-111. https:// doi.org/10.6151/CERQ.2015.2301.03]


[Chang, F.-F. (2010). The five steps of qualitative data analysis: Climbing up a ladder of abstraction. Journal of Elementary

  Education, 35, 87-120.]



[Zhang, M., Zhang, X., & Tu, X. (2016). Does higher education break down social solidification? An empirical study

  based on ordered-probit semi-parameter estimation and shapely value decomposition. Journal of Finance and

  Economics, 8, 15-26.]



[Chang, Y.-C., & Lin, T.-H. (2015). How does the expansion of higher education reproduce class inequality? The case of

  Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Sociology of Education, 15(2), 85-129. https://doi.org/10.3966/168020042015121502003]


[Huang, K.-H., & Tsai, C.-T. (2000). Curriculum development and design: Theory and practice. Lucky Bookstore.]


[Hwang, J.-J. (1983). The conceptions of the curriculum. Bulletin of Educational Research, 6, 149-178.]


[Huang, Z.-J. (1991). Curriculum design. Tung Hua.]


[Huang, H.-W. (2003). Ethnography of junior high school students’ culture. Pro-Ed.]



[Huang, H.-W., & Wang, H.-Y. (2010). Tracking and student cultures: An Ethnographic research of two classes of senior

  high school girls in north Taiwan. Journal of Sociology of Education, 10(1), 127-174.]



[Huang, H.-W., & Wu, H.-M. (2007). We want to become literate: Senior women students’ perspectives of supplementary

  school curriculum. Journal of Sociology of Education, 7(1), 69-110.



[Huang, H.-W., & Tang, R.-Y. (2005). How do students interpret school curriculum? Bulletin of Educational Research,

  51(2), 99-131. https://doi.org/10.6910/BER.200506_(51-2).0004]



[Huang, H.-W., Jheng, Y.-J., & Wang, L.-P. (2016). Why not listen to students? Students perspectives on school curriculum

  and their implications for curriculum research. Journal of Sociology of Education, 16(1), 127-152. https://doi.org/10.



[Chen, H.-L. (2004). Curriculum theory and practice: From deconstructing to reconstructing. Higher Education.]


[Tsai, P.-F. (2007). Junior high school students’ perspectives of curriculum under the atmosphere of diplomaism

  [Unpublished master’s thesis]. National Taiwan Normal University.]


  (2),89-112。https://doi.org/10.29882/JTNUE. 200410.0005

[Liaw, F.-R., & Lee, C.-Y. (2004). When children encounter teacher’s manifest curriculum: A case study of young

  children’s experiential curriculum. Journal of Taiwan Normal University: Education, 49(2), 89-112. https://




[Xiong, C. W., Wang, Y., & Zhe, X. (2014). “Goofing off”: An understanding of schooling among children of migrant

  workers. Journal of Nanjing Tech University (Social Science Edition), 13(2), 108-117.]



[Liu K.-C. (2013). Diplomaism, school campus life, and cram schooling: A group of seventh grade student’s curriculum

  perspectives. Journal of Sociology of Education, 16(1), 127- 152. https://doi.org/10.3966/199044282013104702004]

Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. Simon & Schuster.

Doyle,W. (1997). Children’s interpretations of curriculum events. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13(5), 499-511.


Erikson, F., & Shultz, J. (1992). Students’ experience of the curriculum. In P. W. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of research on

  curriculum: A project of the American Educational Research Association (pp. 465-485). Macmillan.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H.(2021)。教育研究法:研究設計實務(楊孟麗、謝水南,譯)。心


[Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2021). How to design and evaluate research in education (10th ed.) (M.-L.

  Yang & S.-N. Hsieh, Trans.). Psychological.]

Willis, P.(2013)。學做工:工人階級子弟為何繼承父業(秘舒、凌旻華,譯)。譯林。(原著出版於1977)

[Willis, P. (2013). Learning to labour: How working class kids get working class jobs (S. Mi & M. Ling, Trans.). Yi Lin.

  (Original work published 1977)]

Goodlad, J. I. (1979). Curriculum inquiry: The study of curriculum practice. McGraw-Hill.

Haydn, T., & Harris, R. (2010). Pupil perspectives on the purposes and benefits of studying history in high school: A view

  from the UK. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 42(2), 241-261. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220270903403189

Jackson, P. W. (1968). Life in classroom. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Johnson, B., & Cristensen, L. (2012). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage.

Maxwell, J. A. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (3rd ed.). Sage.

Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (7th ed.). Pearson Education.

Osborne, J., & Collins, S. (2001). Pupils’ views of the role and value of the science curriculum: A focus-group study.

  International Journal of Science Education, 23(5), 441-467. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690010006518

Pinar, W. F., Reynolds, W. M., Slattery, P., & Taubman, P. M. (1995). Understanding curriculum: An introduction to the

  study of historical and contemporary curriculum discourses. Peter Lang.

Rogers, V. (1989). Assessing the curriculum experienced by children. Phi Delta Kappan, May, 714-717.

Willis, P. (1977). Learning to labour: How working class kids get working class jobs . Columbia University Press.

Wood, N. B., Lawrenz, F., & Haroldson, R. (2009). A judicial presentation of evidence of a student culture of “dealing”.

  Journal of Research in Science teaching, 46(4), 421-441. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20272