第六十二輯.第二期 - 2016-06-30

大學生網路言論的界線:以美國校園言論自由案例分析為例

The boundary of university student cyberspeech: reference from the case analysis of the freedom of campus speech in the United States

作 者:
謝紫菱 / Hsieh, Tzu-Ling
關鍵字:
高等教育、網路言論、言論自由 / Higher education, Cyberspeech, Freedom of speech
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
由於大學生使用網路發表言論的比例日益增加,而大學基於教育目的需要對學生言論有所規範,但可能因此產生大學自治權與學生言論自由權衝突的情形。本文綜合分析美國法界對於校園言論自由的保護與判斷標準,以及台灣憲法與大法官釋字對於言論自由的保障,發現雖然台灣法界對於校園言論保障上並無相關判例,但對於言論自由維護的精神與美國仍有一致性,也就是台灣的法律規範中,亦含有美國校園言論保障所提出的雙階理論(The Two Level Theory)、廷克測試(Tinker test)與公共論壇(Public forum)的精神,且學校對於大學生的言論理應給予相對於高、國中生言論較大的容忍;惟若要將這些要點運用到網路言論上,會遇到網路言論的跨界性而增加了校園管轄權判斷的複雜度,本文建議各大學應重新檢視學校對於學生網路言論的規範,並且要建立處理網路不當言論的原則與標準程序,兼顧大學自治權與學生言論權的平衡。
With the increase of cyberspeech among university students, university administrators face challenges to regulate student speech, which may cause the conflict with values of student speech right and university autonomy. This study analyzes standards for freedom of campus speech in legal cases of the United States, and related legal interpretation in Taiwan’s constitution and Grand justices. This study found that there are no legal cases about university student cyberspeech in Taiwan, but both Taiwan and United States have similar spirit of free speech protection such as the rules of the two level theory and Tinker test. In addition, university administrator should have more tolerability for university student speech compared with K-12 student speech. However, student cyberspeech is still a confused area of law, because the use of the internet for student expression brings the issue of jurisdiction when cyberspeech happened outside campus. This study suggests that university administrators have to review regulations of student cyberspeech and establish principles and processes to handle student inappropriate cyberspeech. By doing so, universities can balance university autonomy and student speech right.

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