第六十三輯.第一期 - 2017-03-31

大學學習成果總檢驗: 合頂石—總結性課程

A Total Inspection of College Student Learning Outcomes: Capstone Courses as Summative Courses

作 者:
符碧真 / Bih-Jen Fwu
關鍵字:
合頂石、學習成果、總結性評量、總結性課程 / capstone course, learning outcomes, summative evaluation, summative course
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
第二輪大學系所評鑑及中華工程教育學會的國際認證都強調學習成果導向, 然如何檢驗學習成果,各系所莫不苦思解決之道。「總結性課程」被視為檢驗學 習成果最典型的方式。本文旨在探討:一、總結性課程是學習成果總檢驗的好方 法嗎?二、總結性課程要發揮功效,需有哪些配套措施?結果指出,總結性課程 的初衷在幫助學生達到統整、收尾、反思、銜接的功能,而學生最後產出的學習 成果展現系所的教學成效,順勢檢驗核心能力達成程度,故同時被視為大學學習 總檢驗真實可靠、有效果、高效率的方法。其次,學生學術準備度是總結性課程 成敗的關鍵,系所宜系統性規劃課程,使學生具備紮實的學術基礎後,總結性課 程才能發揮功效。對於總結性課程這個新概念,希望拋磚引玉,引發更多討論, 以於實踐時更臻完善。
Student learning outcomes have been gradually emphasized in university program evaluation and IEET’s accreditation. Every program is striving to determine the best way to assess student learning outcomes. Capstone courses have been viewed as a typical assessment of learning outcomes. This study investigated if capstone courses are an appropriate method to evaluate student performance, and searched for relevant measures to make capstone courses work. The results showed that capstone courses not only help students with integration, closure, reflection and transition, but also serve as an authentic, effective and efficient way of summative evaluation for student learning outcomes. Moreover, a systematic restructure of university curriculum, including implementation of prior cornerstone and keystone courses, is necessary to make capstone courses work successfully. Since capstone courses are an imported idea, the present article hoped to provoke more discussions on this issue, thus making future implementation of capstone courses more smoothly.

北二區區域教學資源中心(2016)。整合、收尾、反思、過渡:總整課程成果彙集。臺 北市:作者。

[Second Northern Taiwan Teaching Resource Center. (2016). Integration, closure, reflection, and transition: Collection of capstone courses. Taipei, Taiwan: Author.]

卡艾偉、廖文正(2016)。大大設計師:土地工程設計實務。載於北二區區域教學資源 中心(主編),整合、收尾、反思、過渡:總整課程成果彙集(頁52-57)。臺北 市:北二區區域教學資源中心。 

[Li, C.-W., & Liao, W.-Z. (2016). Practicum of civil engineering design. In Second Northern Taiwan Teaching Resource Center (Ed.), Integration, closure, reflection, and transition: Collection of capstone courses (pp. 52-57). Taipei, Taiwan: Second Northern Taiwan Teaching Resource Center.]

呂良正(2014)。臺大土木系Capstone課程經驗分享。評鑑雙月刊,49,21-24

[Leu, L.-J. (2014). Experiences of capstone course at NTU’s Civil Engineering Department. Evaluation Bimonthly, 49, 21-24.]

李秉乾、鄧鈞文(2011)。逢甲大學以學生學習成效為主體之教學品質保證機制。評鑑雙月刊,34,5-11

[Lee, B.-J., & Teng, C.-W. (2011). Outcome-based teaching quality assurance in Feng Chia University. Evaluation Bimonthly, 34, 5-11.]

國立臺灣大學(2014)。102學年度應屆大學畢業生學習回顧問卷調查報告。取自http://ctld.ntu.edu.tw/doc/rp/102senior_report.pdf

[National Taiwan University. (2016). Report of senior survey 2013. Retrieved from http://ctld.ntu.edu.tw/doc/rp/102senior_report.pdf]

國立臺灣大學教學發展中心(2016a)。2015年校友及雇主問卷調查報告。取自https://ctld.ntu.edu.tw/doc/rp/104employer_simple.pdf

[National Taiwan University-Center for Teaching and Learning Development. (2016a). Report of graduate survey and employer survey 2015. Retrieved from https://ctld.ntu.edu.tw/doc/rp/104employer_simple.pdf]

國立臺灣大學教學發展中心(2016b)。總整課程。取自http://ctld.ntu.edu.tw/rp/ckc/capstone/intro.php#intro_video

[National Taiwan University-Center for Teaching and Learning Development. (2016b). Capstone course. Retrieved from http://ctld.ntu.edu.tw/rp/ckc/capstone/intro.php#intro_video]

陳俞澄、李紋霞(2015)。台大土木工程學系課程精進改革經驗。杜風,92。取自http://www.ntuce-newsletter.tw/vol.92/T4_14.html

[Chen, Y.-C., & Lee, J.-W. (2015). Curriculum reform in NTU’s Civil Engineering Department. Newsletter, 92. Retrieved from http://www.ntuce-newsletter.tw/vol.92/T4_14.html]

童昱軒(2015)。KEYSTONE結構學與流體力學實驗。杜風,92。取自http://www.ntuce-newsletter.tw/vol.92/T4_17.html

[Tong, Y.-X. (2015). Keystone course. Newsletter, 92. Retrieved from http://www.ntuce-newsletter.tw/vol.92/T4_17.html] 

黃源河、符碧真(2011)。揭開日本學生傑出表現背後的秘密:教學研究。教育科學研 究期刊,56(4),69-97

[Hwang, R.-Y., & Fwu, B.-J. (2011). The most significant factor underling Japanese students’ academic success: Lesson study. Journal of Research in Education Sciences, 56(4), 69-97.]

劉曼君、呂良正(2014)。透過Capstone課程培育與檢視畢業生核心能力。評鑑雙月刊,49,17-20

[Liu, M.-J., & Leu, L.-J. (2014). Preparing and examining core competence of graduates through capstone course. Evaluation Bimonthly, 49, 17-20.] 

劉維琪(2010)。推動學生學習成果評量的機制。評鑑雙月刊,26,6-7

[Liu, V.-W. (2010). Promotion of outcome-based evaluation. Evaluation Bimonthly, 26, 6-7.]

劉曉梅(2016)。土木工程概念設計期末展覽。杜風,101。取自http://www.ntuce-newsletter.tw/vol.101/T5_b100.html

[Liu, X.-M. (2016). Curriculum reform on NTU’s Civil Engineering Department. Newsletter, 101. Retrieved from http://www.ntuce-newsletter.tw/vol.101/T5_b100.html]

Ackerman, M., Fenton, W. E., & Raymond, A. M. (2013). Improving communication skills through a capstone experience. PRIMUS, 23(4), 315-325.

Allen, M. J. (2008). Strategies for direct and indirect assessment of student learning. Retrieved from https://assessment.trinity.duke.edu/documents/DirectandIndirectAssessmentMethods.pdf

Arum, R., & Roksa, J. (2011). Academically adrift: Limited learning on college campusesChicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Astin, A., Knefelkamp, L., Levine, A., Wilson, R., & Upcraft, M. L. (1991). Perspectives on the freshman year, volume 1 (Monograph No. 2). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource for the Freshman Year Experience.

Benjamin, Jr., L, T. (2010). History of psychology as a capstone course. In D. S. Dunn, B. B.

Beins, M. A., McCarthy, & G. W. Hill (Eds.), Best practices for teaching beginnings and endings in the psychology major: Research, cases, and recommendations (pp. 171-185). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Berkson, J., & Harrison, A. (2001). An integrative capstone course for the conservation biology curriculum. Conservation Biology, 15(5), 1461-1463.

Bertalanffy, L. V. (1968). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. New York, NY: Braziller. 

Berheide, C. W. (2007). Doing less work, collecting better data: Using capstone courses to assess learning. Peer Review, 9(2), 27-30.

Black, K. E., & Hundley, S. P. (2004). Capping off the curriculum. Assessment Update, 16(1), 3.

Boyer, E. L. (1987). College: The undergraduate experience in America. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Clark, J. E., Engel, D., Napolitano, M., Richardson, J., Rodriguez, M., Sterling-Deer, C., & Kasprzak, C. (2008). Integration, reflection, closure & transition advancing capstone learning at LaGuardia. Retrieved from http://tedsm.math.ntnu.edu.tw/TEDS-M_2008_International_Study_in_Taiwan_Mathematics_Teacher_Education.pdf

Cuseo, J. B. (1998). Objectives and benefits of senior year programs. In J. N. Gardner & G. Van der Veer, G. (Eds.), The senior year experience: Facilitating reflection, integration, closure and transition (pp. 21-36). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Drucker, P. F. (2006). The effective executive: The definitive guide to getting the right things done. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

Dugan Jr., R. F. (2011). A survey of computer science capstone course literature. Computer Science Education, 21(3), 201-267.

Dunn, D. S., & McCarthy, M. A. (2010). The capstone course in psychology as liberal education. In D. S. Dunn, B. C. Beins, M. A. McCarthy, & G. W. Hill (Eds.), Best practices for teaching beginnings and endings in the psychology major (pp. 155-170). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Edward, E. (2005). Assessment that drives instruction. In G. L. Taggart, S. J. Phifer, J. A. Nixon, & M. Wood. (Eds.), Rubrics: A handbook for construction and use (pp. 1- 22). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

El-Sayed, M., & Beyerlein, S. W. (2007). Creating a capstone course. In S. W. Beyerlein, C. Holmes, & D. K. Apple (Eds.), Faculty guidebook: A comprehensive tool for improving faculty performance (pp. 273-276). Lisle, IL: Pacific Crest Software.

Ferren, A., & Paris, D. (2013). How students, faculty, and institutions can fulfill the promise of capstones. Peer Review, 15(4), 4-7.

Fillebrown, S. (2013). Capstone: Why it didn’t work for us. PRIMUS, 23(4), 412-418.

Gardner, J. N., & Van der Veer, G. (1998). The senior year experience: Facilitating reflection, integration, closure and transition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Glaser, R. (1962). Psychology and instructional technology. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Training, research and education (pp. 1-30). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. Goldstein, G., & Fernald, P. (2009). Humanistic education in a capstone course. College Teaching, 57(1), 27-36.

Gonyea, R. M. (2005). Self-reported data in institutional research: Review and recommendations. New Directions for Institutional Research, 127, 73-89.

Hartmann, D. J. (1992). Program assessment in sociology: The case for the bachelor’s paper. Teaching Sociology, 20, 25-28.

Hauhart, R. C., & Grahe, J. E. (2010). The undergraduate capstone course in the social sciences: Results from a reginal survey. Teaching Sociology, 38(1), 4-17.

Hauhart, R. C., & Grahe, J. E. (2012). A national survey of American higher education capstone practices in sociology and psychology. Teaching Sociology, 40(3), 227-241.

Hauhart, R. C., & Grahe, J. E. (2015). Designing and teaching undergraduate capstone coursesSan Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hefferan, K. P., Heywood, N. C., & Ritter, M. E. (2002). Integrating field trips and classroom learning into a capstone undergraduate research experience. Journal of Geography, 101(5), 183-190.

Henscheid, J. M. (2000). Professing the disciplines: An analysis of senior seminars and capstone courses. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Henscheid, J. M., & Barnicoat, L. R. (2003). Capstone courses in higher education. In J. W.Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (Vol. 1, pp. 239-241). New York, NY: Macmillan.

Hirsch, A. C., & Parihar, H. S. (2014). A capstone course with a comprehensive and integrated review of the pharmacy curriculum and student assessment as a preparation for advanced pharmacy practice experiences. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78, 192. doi:10.5688/ajpe7810192

Holdsworth, A., Watty, K., & Davies, M. (2009). Developing capstone experiences. Retrieved from http://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/1761203/ Capstone_Guide_09.pdf

Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Hummer, J. A. (2014). The content and integrative component of capstone experiences: An analysis of political science undergraduate programs. Journal of Political Science Education, 10(2), 222-242. 

Johnson, G. F., & Halabi, A. K. (2011). The accounting undergraduate capstone: Promoting synthesis, reflection, transition, and competencies. Journal of Education for Business, 86(5), 266-273.

Kaufmann, F. (1959). John Dewey’s theory of inquiry. The Journal of Philosophy, 56(21), 826- 836.

Korthagen, F., & Kessels, J. (1999). Linking practice and theory: Changing the pedagogy of teacher education. Educational Researcher, 28(4), 4-17. doi:10.3102/0013189X028004004

Korthagen, F., Kessels, J., Koster, B., Lagerwerf, B., & Wubbels, T. (2001). Linking practice and theory: The pedagogy of realistic teacher education. Mahwah, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kuh, G. D. (2008). High-impact educational practices: What they are, who has access to them, and why they matter. Washington, DC: Association of American College and Universities.

Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J. I., Schuh, J. H., & Whitt, E. J. (2005). Student success in college: Creating conditions that matter. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Levia Jr., D. F., & Quiring, S. M. (2008). Assessment of student learning in a hybrid PBL capstone seminar. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 32(2), 217-231.

Levine, A. (1978). Handbook of undergraduate curriculum. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Levine, A. (1998). A president’s personal and historical perspective. In J. N. Gardner & G. Van der Veer (Eds.), The senior year experience: Facilitating reflection, integration, closure and transition (pp. 51-58). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ludmerer, K. M. (1996). Learning to heal: The development of American medical educationBaltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Mayes, T. S., & Bennett, J. K. (2005, June). ABET best practices: Results from interviews with 27 peer institutions. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Washington, DC.

Mazzocchi, F. (2010). Complexity in biology. Exceeding the limits of reductionism and determinism using complexity theory. EMBO Reports, 9(1), 10-14.

McKenzie, L. J., Trevisan, M. S., Davis, D. C., & Beyerlein, S. W. (2004, June). Capstone design courses and assessment: A national survey. Paper presented at Proceedings of American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Salt Lake City, UT.

Meyer, D. G. (2008). The capstone experience at the baccalaureate, master’s, and doctorate levels. In J. E. Spurlin, S. A. Rajala, & J. P. Lavelle (Eds.), Designing better engineering education through assessment (pp. 285-304). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Moore, R. C. (2005). The capstone course. In W. B. Christ (Ed.), Assessing media education: A resource for educators and administrators (pp. 439-462). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Moriarty, L. J. (2006). Investing in quality: The current state of assessment in criminal justiceprograms. Justice Quarterly, 23(4), 409-427.

National Survey of Student Engagement. (2014). Bringing the institution into focus-Annual results 2014. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research.

Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies. (2013). Special Issue on Capstone Courses, 23(4). Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/upri20/23/4

Rhodes, T. L., & Finley, A. (2013). Using the VALUE rubrics for improvement of learning and authentic assessment. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Rodrick, R., & Dickmeyer, L. (2002). Providing undergraduate research opportunities for communication students: A curricular approach. Communication Education, 51(1), 40-50.

Rogers, G. (2006). Direct and indirect assessments: What are they good for? Community Matters, 4, 3.

Rowles, C. J., Koch, D. C., Hundley, S. P., & Hamilton, S. J. (2004). Toward a model for capstone experiences: Mountaintops, magnets, and mandates. Assessment Update, 16(1), 1-2, 13-15.

Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Schön, D. (1995). Knowing-in-action: The new scholarship requires a new epistemology. Change, 27(6), 26-34. doi:10.1080/00091383.1995.10544673

Shaw, A. R. (1994). Performance-based evaluation of student learning: A continuum from K-12 through the university level: A process evaluation report of the FIPSE project. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED 414844)

Sill, D., Harward, B. M., & Cooper, I. (2009). The disorienting dilemma: The senior capstone as a transformative experience. Liberal Education, 95(3), 50-55.

Smith, L. D. (2011). Capstone courses- An overview. Retrieved from http://www0.sun.ac.za/ctl/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/What-is-a-capstone-course8.pdf

Spurlin, J. E., Rajala, S. A., & Lavelle, J. P. (2008). Assessing student learning: Ensuring undergraduate students are learning what we want them to learn. In J. E. Spurlin, S. A. Rajala, & J. P. Lavelle (Eds.), Designing better engineering education through assessment  (pp. 23-58). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Starr-Glass, D. (2010). Reconsidering the international business capstone: Capping, bridging, orboth? Journal of Teaching in International Business, 21(4), 329-345.

Sum, P. E., & Light, S. A. (2010). Assessing student learning outcomes and documentingsuccesses through a capstone course. Political Science and Politics, 43(3), 523-532.

Wright, K. (2010). Capstone programming courses considered harmful. Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 124-127.

Zinn, T. E., Reis-Bergan, M. J., & Baker, S. C. (2010). Ten things I hate about my capstone course- And a few ways to fix them. In D. S. Dunn, B. B. Beins, M. A. McCarthy, & G. W. Hill (Eds.), Best practices for teaching beginnings and endings in the psychology major: Research, cases, and recommendations (pp. 237-251). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.