第六十三輯.第三期 - 2017-09-30

晚清戊戌變法前英人在華教育活動與英國教育經驗的輸入

Britons’ Educational Activities and Educational Transfer to China in the Qing Dynasty before the Wuxu Reform

作 者:
周愚文 / YU-WEN CHOU
關鍵字:
戊戌變法、英國教育、教會學校、教育轉移 / British education, educational transfer, mission schools, Wuxu Reform
  • 摘要
  • 英文摘要
  • 參考文獻
  • 學術引用
本文旨在探討戊戌變法前英人如何借在華教育活動輸入其教育經驗。自1843年起,英人透過官私管道,輸入其教育經驗。1858年前,差會辦有各類男女義塾,主收下層子女免學費,教中文聖經,程度低,組織欠備,量少規模小,設於通商口岸。之後,教士得入內地傳教辦學。上海出現制度、組織及課程較完備學堂,教英語或西學,程度提高,但量少未成體系。有書館採高學費收富商子弟,用英語教學。官辦同文三館、船政學堂等學堂雖聘英籍教習,但人少且禁傳教,影響有限。故1898年前英人輸入教育經驗,是摸索、個別、無規劃與體系的歷程,又因社會排外反教難以推廣。此與甲午戰後朝野以日為師、主動仿日制定兩學制有別。各差會爭辯「以學輔教」策略,直到1890年始有共識。英人校數雖增但成效與制度化均不及美人,故更難發揮影響力。
The aim of this article is to explore how British educational experiences were transferred to China before the Wuxu Reform. Since 1843, British educational experiences were introduced via official and private ways. Before 1858, some British missionaries had established charity schools to teach Scriptures in Chinese for the lower class at trade ports. After that, foreigners were allowed to travel, preach, and establish churches and schools in inland. Some well-organized schools were established in Shanghai, and few fee-paying English studios were established for children from well-being families. Their loose connections had to fight with stronger anti-Christianity and anti-foreignism. Besides, some British missionaries taught English at Governmental schools but evangelical preaching was forbidden. Therefore, the process of British educational transfer was a trying, individual, unplanned and un-systemized one, less supported by the Japanese government after 1894. Furthermore, disputes existed among different protestant missions on taking education as means for evangelic preaching. After the l890 Missionary Conference, consensus was made. Compared with their counterparts in America, the number of British mission schools had increased but had not been systemized, and had less achievement, which had made it more difficult to diffuse the British educational experiences.

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